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Nneka O. ANAUKWU[1]


Stella I. ORJI[2]

Abstract: Nigeria has a history of human cum child trafficking. The prevalent sexual trade/ exploitations, child labour, street hawking of Nigerians home and abroad among others; are consequences of this menace. Thus, the paper sought to ascertain the role of the National Agency for the Protection of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP) as a tool and the role of education in curbing the increased rate of child trafficking in Nigeria. The paper is exploratory; relied on secondary materials and built around Structural Functionalism theory. It examined the existing practices employed by the agency in order to ascertain its effectiveness in combating the said phenomenon. In doing so, it revealed that Nigeria has undertaken several mechanisms to address human/child trafficking problem within her borders. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that NAPTIP and other mechanisms against human trafficking will be effective without the emphasis on the roles of education. For this reason, the paper recommended, the need for the Nigerian government to ensure that NAPTIP receives sufficient funding for its fights against human trafficking and as well, educational awareness and national campaigns against the menace. More so, there is need to strengthen the borders between Nigeria and her neighbours. In addition, there is need to address the root causes of human trafficking such as the issues of poverty, inequality and conflicts.

Keywords: Child trafficking; Education; Forced Labour; Human Trafficking; NAPTIP

[1]Dr. Anaukwu is a Lecturer II of the Department of Political Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

[2] Dr. Orji is a Lecturer II of the Department of Political Science, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria.

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Impact of Management Motivational Strategies on Teachers’ job satisfaction in Somalia.



Ali Araye Addow


Ntu N. Nkomo

Faculty of Education

Islamic University in Uganda


Teachers must be properly motivated in order to reach the needed educational production if quality education is to be achieved. This implies that quality education cannot be attained unless teachers are satisfied with their working conditions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of management motivational strategies on teachers’ job satisfaction in Somalia. The concept of motivation was described as a set of intricate impulses, wants, tensions, emotions, or mechanisms that initiate and sustain action in the direction of achieving one’s own objectives. Some of the basic motivational strategies listed in this paper include staff development and training, participatory decision-making, good working conditions, remunerations and salaries, job security, etc. To increase employee productivity, companies must be able to offer them conditions that will make them more productive and engaged at work. This is what is meant by job satisfaction. The paper recommended among other things, that the terms of employment for school instructors should be more appealing. Teachers should be paid fairly and given advancements when they are due. Loans, housing, and other advantages should be made available to them. For the teacher, this would be encouraging.

Keywords: Education, job satisfaction, management, motivation, strategies

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Evaluation of Curriculum Consideration for Vocational-Based Technology Education: Harnessing the Benefits of Polytechnic Education for Sustainable Development


A Paper Presented At Academic Staff Union of Polytechnic (ASUP) Zone D

6th National/Virtual conference (1st Feb – 3RD, 2023)

Kenule Beeson Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic Bori, Rivers State.


1, 2 &3Department of Foundation Studies, General Studies

Kenule Beeson Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic Bori, Rivers State, Nigeria

4Department of Petroleum Marketing and Business Studies and

Management Technology, Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas

Bonny, Rivers State, Nigeria.



The paper compared curriculum consideration for vocational-based technology education as remedy for nation building in countries like Germany, Australia, Finland, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, and Nigeria. Materials for the study were accessed through internet, textbooks, and journal articles. The study anchored on social exclusion theory. Phenomenological interpretation was adopted in the analysis. It was discovered that Nigeria lagged behind in vocational-based technology education. Theoretical aspect of learning and vocational skill training is not easily combined in institutions in Nigeria due to lack of government interest inability to separately handle theoretical and practical learning. The aberration perception of parents made children lose interest in participating in vocational-based technology education in Nigeria. Vocational-based and rehabilitation centers are established in Nigeria by individuals just to score political points. In Mexico, its curriculum includes training for work which enables the beneficiaries to be employed in the labour market and it consists of 50% theory and 50% of practical. In terms of national recognition, Nigeria has none, while Australia made provisions for such. The curriculum run by technical/vocational colleges in Nigeria is strictly determined by the mare interest of the child instead of encouragement from parents or government.

Keywords: Curriculum Consideration, Vocational-Based Technology, Education, Panacea, Declining Economy


The development of curriculum takes into consideration the relevance of the course to the discipline’s deliverables and the relevance of the individual to the society after schooling. It is a very important aspect of education. Every discipline or subject has its curriculum designed to suit the type of job responsibilities the individual is likely to meet in the course of his/her assignment/responsibilities after acquiring the right knowledge. The wave of business enterprises has transcended to different aspects of human endeavors and still expanding. The most important aspect is partnership in doing things together. Being self-reliant bad but, coming together or being business inclined as a result of cooperative relationship is essential. The bottom-line is that funds can be collectively raised from contributions either through a jointly owned purse, cultural or social aspirations. However, there is always better ways of motivating business ventures. This aspect is through economic learning process. It is the incorporation or integration of political economy and cooperative studies aimed at management of business co-operatives (Baumgardner, 2015). According to Beshel & Anthony, (2019), it is an independent economic study that involves group of individuals united with the intention of willingly achieving jointly owned social, economic and cultural aspirations in business pursuit through democratic tenets.

Vocational-based Technology education is being thought with the intention of understanding the rudiments of technological skills in diverse areas to positions an individual on the part of small scale manufacturing or production. Nzube, (2018) noted that vocational and technical education is the acquisition of skills and techniques in a chosen occupation or profession to enable an individual earn a living. According to UNESCO, (1999), “the study of technologies and related sciences, and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupants in various sectors of economic and social life” Curriculum development for vocational based technology education is essential and has to be considered in the development of course contents in tertiary institutions. Its study is an emancipation of minds tied to the phobia of how to raise money for businesses start-ups, and management. As stumbling challenges in business management, political, social and cultural berries are considered as essential impediments to businesses and would be overcome if literal empowerment is treated and curriculum contents are harnessed. Drawing study contents are vital in academically empowering students through technology related studies. It is a sensitization of the mind and advocacy towards awareness and business management leadership. Inherent benefits in technological knowledge are enormous. It is an encouragement for economic security, motivation and freedom capitalism, competition and exploitation and gives equality, and millions of others. However, few numbers of students are interested in studying technology related course in higher institutions of learning. But not very apt to well implemented vocational-based technology education. Certainly, apart from playing an indispensable part in the overall strategy of sustaining a declining economy, vocational-based technology education has been considered as essential condition for economic growth via inter-sectoral linkages such as supply of surplus foreign exchange through export of technology earnings.

Vocational-based technology education (V-BTE) in Nigeria is not yet acknowledged as a part way to economic emancipation. Several teachers of technology have left for greener pastures overseas to take up teaching in tertiary institutions. This migration has increasingly declined the economy through reduction in revenue from technology productivity and manpower reduction. The declining practical performance in vocational-based technology education has also been attributed to lack of teachers and non-participation of the government in the provision of equipment, enabling environment and teacher’s motivation (Onyejeme 2013). If nothing is done urgently in this respect, students might abandon vocational-based technology education in preference to other areas with qualified teachers. Shortage of qualified technical teachers has also resulted to inadequacy of skilled and semi-skilled technical manpower needed in Nigerian industries and other developing nations. Trained technical teachers are often lost in the wider labour market because of poor remuneration. They lamented the effects of low wage and poor incentives to technical teachers Opara (2013), Dike (2015) and Nwankwo (2014) asserted that a teacher’s decision to enter and remaining the teaching profession depends not only on his or her initial salary but also on the expected growth in the salary overtime. It has been discovered that several developing countries such as Germany, Australia, Finland, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Japan, South Korea, Mexico and others are practicing vocational technology education (Olamide, 2015). The question raised is, has vocational-based technology education helped in the growth of economies of vocational-based technology education nations. Therefore, to address this nagging problem, it has become imperative for the researcher to evaluate the extent to which vocational-based technology education has contributed to nation building in Nigeria.

Aim of this paper is to evaluate curriculum consideration for vocational-based technology education and nation building in a declining economy with specific emphasis to Nigeria. General objectives of this paper are to find out;

  • curriculum consideration for vocational education and training.
  • types of vocational based curriculum (V-BTE)
  • objectives of Vocational Education.
  • strategies to support vocational-based technology Education. (see page 5)
  • vocational-Based Technology Education in other Nations.
  • vocational-Based Technology Education in Nigeria.
  • technical and Vocational Education in Selected countries and Nigeria Compared
  • Nigeria Vocational-Based Technical Education Programme.
  • Economic and social Benefits of vocation-based technology education to Nation building
  • the benefits of Vocational-Based Technology Education
  • lessons to Learn and
  • way forward

Focus of this paper is on the development of curriculum considerations for vocational-based technology education in tertiary institutions in Nigeria as a panacea for nation building in a declining economy. This study limited its investigation to the variables of measuring curriculum consideration in teaching vocational-based technology in educational in institutions in Nigeria.  

This paper is considered essential in the following directions;

This paper would increase the willingness of technical teachers to put in more time and get committed to their jobs as a pointer to government on the importance of vocational-based education in building a nation with declining economy.

This study exposes to the government the need to enhance remunerations of vocational-based technology education teachers on the need to increase their salary and grant study leave with pay, receive hazard/workshop allowances and others.

Both the government, students, private organizations, institutions and agencies will appreciate findings from this paper and get spurred to take interest in implementations of vocational-based trainings and curriculums reconsidered to enhance existing teaching contents in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

Acquisition of vocational skill enhances the possibility of graduates to be self-reliant as they would be able to generate personal income, feed their families, cloth their children, provide shelter for their families and find themselves being sustained through the skills acquired and at the same time provide services to the society. 

Findings would alert the motivation of training of qualified vocational-based teachers in tertiary institutions to adequately groom students on technology related skills to cushion the effect of dependency on imported electronics and improve more on equipment repairs and maintenance services.

It will bring to reality, the relevance of vocational-based technology education and also provide literature materials for reference purposes for future studies in related area. This paper will also provide reference to scholars who may choose to work on seminars, conference paper preparation and research work in future.

Literature Review

Clarification of Basic concepts

Curriculum consideration

Nwanyanwu and Okwara, (2022) asserted that curriculum is considered to mean a learning multitude of experience which a school provides for students. It is the experience of students in its totality found in the educational process. It could be seen as a planned sequence of specific instructions or view of experiences gained by the student based on the instructional goals of the educator(s). It is the critical management of thinking abilities of a student being assessed by the teacher in an environment. This is acceptable and guided by instructional manuals designed for the establishment of rational thinking outside the learning environment (Ekwue & Udoye, (2004) considered curriculum as qualitative and quantitative increase in rational thinking through designed learning process. It is a learning and training combination of arranged sequence of courses within a given period. Curriculum is the content of academic lessons of a programe/school with a specific time and period. This is a specific applied skills in a given content. It is a student‘s experience in totality throughout an educational journey. It is an integration of courses in academic programme toward imbibing knowledge in students sometimes based on the student‘s condition. It is a structured framework that shows the ways students should be thought or trained (——).

Types of Curriculum

Curriculums vary according to the type and purpose. There are two major types of curriculum; academic and Skill-based educational curriculum.

Academic Curriculum

According to Simalalo, (2017), it is a systemic teaching method in which a student engages knowledge based skill learning, acquired extensively through a structured and complex designed process and through a carefully designed questions and accomplished tasks.

Other Types of Curriculum

There are other vocational technology teaching/education curriculums

This explains experientially prepared principle of learning through practicalized real-life situations. This is opposed to conventional or theoretical approach, and focuses on individual traits.

Other Types of Curriculum

There are other types of curriculums not limited to;

Written Curriculum

This is a type of curriculum, written and documented. Such curriculum can be found in films, texts and other material. This could be a document written by a larger institution or body governing, utilizing materials from the larger society, institution. This is also referred to instruction material.

Taught Curriculum

This type of curriculum reflects teaching patterns of teachers. It is less predictable but standardized in nature. It changes according to teacher‘s adopted tools; this can include demonstrations, experiments/practical and other types of engagement conducted through group work and hands-on activities. It is considered as critical for students requiring special supports (Obidile, 2014).

Supported Curriculum

A supported curriculum is considered as additional instructional resources for learning outside the classroom. It could be textbooks, field trips, software and any other technology in addition to other innovative new techniques to engage students. Teachers and other individuals involved with the course are also a component of the supported curriculum (Ugwuja, 2010).

Assessed Curriculum

An assessed curriculum can be called tested curriculum. It has to do with quizzes, tests and other performance measurement criterion for determining the level of knowledge achievement of the student encompassing assessment techniques, including a portfolio of demonstration presentations and presentations and other standards of assessment tests.

Recommended Curriculum

In education, this is known by experts as a variety of different sources such as recognized researchers, policy makers, legislators, and others with focus on skill and content, tools, teats, prioritized in the classroom by educators.

Hidden Curriculum

This is unplanned curriculum with significant impact on learning. It is not written or communicated through text but involves unmentioned rules, values and norms. The struggles involved in understanding hidden curriculum by students of different backgrounds have challenged resource allocations to it by institutions for instance, teaching of French in schools with English speaking countries.

Excluded Curriculum

This is the communization of course contents by the feeling that it is less important. The attitude of educational specialists that certain contents are less important is as well as excluding some relevant contents in a curriculum. For instance, when students are not taught about an ongoing debate among experts in a particular field or not encouraged to think critically about a text. They go about with empty knowledge about that area of content.

Learned Curriculum

This is a learned curriculum acquired by students or what students walk away with from a course. This includes the subject matter and knowledge they learned from a course, but it can also include additional changes in attitude and emotional wellbeing. Teachers need to close the gap between what they expect students to learn and what students actually do learn.

Declining Economy

A declining economy is explained to mean when an economy is experiencing negative gross domestic product (GDP), rising from high level of unemployment, falling retail sales, and contracting measures of income and manufacturing for an extended period of time. In this case, there is continues inflation adjusted value of goods and services. When there is a high unemployment, reduction in housing unemployment. This is an economy in depression (Sheiner & Dynan, 2018).

Vocational-based technology Education

Scholars have come up with various understandings of the concept of vocational technology education. According to Nwogu, and Nwannoruo,  (2011), Vocational technology education is referred to as education inside vocational schools that plans individuals for a particular trade. It straightforwardly creates skill in procedures identified with innovation, ability and exploratory strategy to encompass all parts of the trade. In the eyes of Ojimba, (2013), vocational technology education or Career prepares individuals for particular trades, jobs and professions at different levels and creates livelihoods typically in light of manual or viable exercises in which the learner straightforwardly get mastery of skills and techniques. To Boyi, (2019), vocational technology education can be seen as optional level of further education or advanced education level with the apprenticeship framework. Vocational technology education is identified with the apprenticeship arrangement of learning to acquire elevated specific skills to provide services to people (Okoye & Arimonu, 2016).

Given the above definitions, non-expressed or identified that it involves practical application of knowledge teachings. Therefore, vocational-based technology education can be explained to mean the practical skill training of an individual for the purposes of sustainability, self-reliance and provision of services to society.

Curriculum and Vocational Education and Training

To cope with the globalization demands, UNESCO (1999) vividly explained that there are two basic factors that will determine whether a nation will develop and or grow her economy through vocational technology education. These factors are;

  • response to globalization demands
  • actions to shape international rules and processes for a more open trading system

United Nation Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO, (1999) asserted that there are additional strategies to support vocational education not limited to; (a) market expansion, (b) the inter-dependency of worldwide economies,(c) global operations, (d) workforce mobility, (e) a global marketplace.

Objectives of Vocational Education

The philosophy of vocational education can be abstracted from the philosophy of education in Nigeria as contained in the National Policy on Education since vocational education is a subset of total education. A close look at these objective shows (that they are actually human resource development functions of technical education. The objectives are not limited to;

  • give exposure on professional studies in the technologies.

  • give training and impart the necessary skills for the production of technicians, technologists and other skilled personnel who shall be enterprising and self reliant.

  • train people who can apply scientific knowledge to solve environmental problems for the convenience of man, and
  • provide courses of instruction and training in engineering, other technologies, applied science, business and management leading to the production of trained manpower.

  •  provide the technical knowledge and skills necessary for agricultural, industrial, commercial and economic development of Nigeria(Obidile, 2014).

Social Exclusion Theory

This work is predicated on Social Exclusion Theory propounded in France by Lenoir in 1994. The gains cut across sociology, economics, education and others. In this discuss, the concept social exclusion theory is explained from the stand point of Inequality in health, income and poverty. It explains a situation in which individuals are prepared for self-reliance through practical skill teaching to accommodate multiple streams of income and empowerment for sustainability. The fundamental is integration into the management team of employability and employers of labour. Self-reliance explains the financial ability to sustain one’s household through the provision of food, shelter, financial ability to train a child in school and provide clothing. It is as well, a civic engagement, democratic participation, healthcare, and consequently a better way of empowerment to disengage youths and adults from social delinquency even when education as a career fails. Lenoir argued that apart from playing an indispensable part in the overall strategy of sustaining the household, vocational skill is an essential occupational engagement that is capable of providing services the society, hence needs not be over-looked. The emphasis is to enthrone equality in the society, close the literacy gap in all sectors of the society in which the social deprivation of joblessness has to be eliminated and individuals made useful and eligible for employment through equal access to sustained life.

Empirical Review

Several scholars have conducted studies to explain the roles of vocational technology education in remedying a decline in the economy; (Ojimba, 2013: Boyi, 2019: Shala1 and Pantina, 2021). Beginning the discussion on this topic is the work of Oladejo, (2019) on Challenges of technical and vocational education and training in Nigerian history. The study focused on technical vocational education in Nigeria. It was the aim of the author to understand the root cause of disoriented vocational education in Nigeria. Phenomenological interpretation was adopted in the analysis. The paper found inadequacy of technical application gap in the implementations of vocational technology education as major challenge of the vocational programme. Accumulation of circulation of skills in vocational training was also an impediment. A review of impact of technical and vocational education in nation building was carried out by Arthur, Aneke and Otiji, (2020). Focus of the paper was on manpower training. Descriptive statistic and ANOVA were employed for the analysis. It was discovered that there is significant manpower training and provision of Technical knowledge & vocational skills necessary for agricultural, industrial, commercial and economic development in Nigeria. Colleges of Education (Technical) training can still contribute to nation building.

Shala and Pantina, (2021) investigated the impact of the vocational secondary education in Kosovo’s economic development from 2002-2017. Focus of the paper was on vocational training and development of the economy. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and econometric models. It was discovered that that Vocational Secondary Education does not significantly impact economic development in Kosovo. A review of Technical and vocational education and training as a tool for national sustainable development in Nigeria was conducted by Nwosu and Ehud. (2017). Analysis was carried out using a review method. Finding revealed that historical background, goals and scope of Technical and Vocational Education (TVET) and the concept of sustainable development principles, goals and strategies are necessary for development of vocational education teaching. It was also found that various veritable tools are required for national sustainability development.

A review of current perspectives on technical and vocational education and training in Nigeria was conducted by Okoye and Okwelle, (2017). Phenomenological interpretation was adopted in the analysis. It was found that there is no substitute to technical vocational education and training (TVET) is an alternative to education. Curriculum consideration for cooperative economic studies in tertiary institutions in Imo State, Nigeria was investigated by Nwanyanwu and Okwara, (2022). Focus of the study was on curriculum development. Analysis was conducted with descriptive statistics and ANOVA. It was found that cooperative economic studies have positive significant influence on graduates’ occupations. There was positive significant influence of cooperative economic studies on self-employment of graduated students, management of private businesses by graduates of cooperative economic studies from Imo State Polytechnic Nnekede.


This study is a review design conducted in Nigeria. Analysis was carried out using phenomenological interpretation approach to determine what constituted objectives, types of vocational based curriculum (V-BTE), objectives, strategies to support vocational-based technology Education and Economic and social Benefits of vocation-based technology education and benefits of Vocational-Based Technology Education.

Vocational-Based Technology Education in other Nations

We live in a world of constant industrial and technological changes. Olamide, (2015) conducted a cross country study of the impact of vocational-based technology education some countries of the world and found varying significant effects on their economic performances. These performances are examined below;

Vocational Education in India

Vocational training has been found successful in India and provided in both full and part-time in Industrial Training Institutes and especially in engineering trades. There are many private institutes in India which offer courses in vocational training and finishing, though, most of them have not been recognized by the Indian government. India has taken the lead in vocational training in Film and Television, and Information Technology, Audio Production and Recording. Maharashtra State Government also offers Vocational Diplomas in various trades. It should be noted that all the state governments in India run vocational schools. For example, there are 389 vocational schools in Kerala region alone offering vocational technology education comprising automobile, Air conditioning, Laboratory Technician and others.

Vocational Education in Australia

In Australia, vocational education and training is mostly post-secondary and provided through the vocational education and training system by registered training organizations. However, some senior schools do offer school-based apprenticeships and traineeships for students in years 10, 11 and 12. There is a national recognition for the vocational training in Australia because the assessments and awards of any one registered training organization must be recognized by all others and the decisions of any state or territory.

Vocational Education in Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, vocational Education began from post-primary level. This is provided in  nine (9) different vocational fields namely; Applied Science, Business Administration, Child Education and Community Services, Construction; Design, Printing, Textiles and Clothing; Hotel, Service and Tourism Studies, Information Technology, Electrical and Electronic, Engineering and Mechanical, Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering (Abdulkareem & Ali,2012).

Vocational Education in South Korea

In South Korea, vocational technology education is found in some special areas namely; technology/engineering, commerce/business, maritime/fishery, and home economics. The number of students in vocational high schools have decreased, from about half of students in 1995 down to about one-quarter in 2006.By 2007, most vocational high school students proceeded into tertiary education and 43% transferred to junior colleges while 25% were admitted into the university. Olamide, (2015). Currently, the South Korean government now pilots Vocational Schools in which workplace training is an important part of the programme and approximately half of all vocational high schools are private.

Vocational Education in Mexico

In Mexico, both federal and state governments are responsible for the administration of vocational education funded through the federal budget. The country runs programme curriculum that involves 35% of general subjects and 65% of vocational subjects. Students are required to complete 360 hours of practical training. Mexico has 60% of general subjects and 40% of vocational subjects. There are various subsystems though one subsystem includes two thirds of the students.

Vocational Education Programme in Germany

In Germany, vocational education program does not focus completely on factory work, and as a result of this system, few Germans find themselves unemployable because 51.5 % German students choose this path. (Olamide, 2015) noted that unemployment in Germany was just 5.4% as at February 2022 due to her kin interest and participation in vocational education program while in USA, a handful of unemployed are 16.2% and  23.9% in Euro zone as a whole.

Vocational Education in Finland

In Finland, vocational education belongs to secondary education. Most students have the option of attending either a high school or the vocational school. The high school is an institution that prepares students for tertiary education. Education in vocational school is free, while students from low-income families are qualified for a state student grant. The curriculum is principally vocational, and the academic part of the curriculum is adapted to the needs of a given course. The vocational schools are mostly maintained by metropolis/city. Upon completion of the secondary education, a student can be admitted into the higher vocational schools or universities. Further, it is also possible for a student to choose either tertiary institution or vocational school, which lasts usually from 3 to 4 years.

Vocational Education in Hungary

In Hungary, every child at age fourteen is expected to have completed elementary education and given direct admission to higher school made up of two categories either (i) academic track (gymnasium) and (ii) vocational tracks which combines vocational secondary schools that (otherwise known as provide four years of general education and also prepare students for the Prepares the student for pre-vocational education and career orientation. This will eventually lead the student to obtain a vocational qualification, while they may also seek entry to tertiary education. In Hungary, vocational training schools at the on-set provide two years of general education, which is combined with some pre-vocational education and career orientation. This leads students to choose an occupation, either private life or white-collar job.

Vocational Education in Japan

The Japanese vocational schools are component of Japan’s higher education system. It is required that students graduate from the high school). Some have a wide range of majors, others only a few majors such as computer technology, software development, website development/creation and others.

Vocational Technical Education in Selected countries and Nigeria Compared

In Germany, vocational education is “dual” in nature because students (i) learn in the class and (ii) attend vocational schools and take days within the week to undergo apprenticeship work in various chosen fields.

In Australia, vocational/technical education is mostly post secondary and the senior schools for school-based apprenticeship for service-oriented occupations.

In Finland however, vocational/technical education belongs to the secondary education,
where students have options of either attend a high school or vocational school. It is the responsibility of the metropolis/city to maintain the vocational schools in Finland.

In Hong Kong, the vocational education is for the post secondary 3, 5, and 7 level students. But in Hungary, vocational/technical education is one of the tracks of the 2 types; upper secondary school, which provides 4 years of general education, while the vocational /technical education is through the communist educational reform.

By 1989, Hungary has made significant efforts to reorganize its vocational education and training system so as to face the challenges of the market economy (Nzube, 2018). In India, vocational /technical education is provided on both full time and part time basis. The full time programme is offered through the Industrial Training Institute, while the part time programme is offered through the State Technical Education Boards or the universities and all State government run vocational schools.

In Japan, technical/vocational education isa component of Japan’s higher education system and lasts for 2 years, and many students study after their completion of high school.

In South Korea, the government pilots the vocational schools that are mostly privately owned. Also, both the private and public schools operate according to similar rules. The programme lasts for 2 years in junior collages and 1 year in Polytechnics.

In Mexico, the responsibility of administration of technical/vocational education rests on both the Federal and State government.

Mode of School Training and Conduct of Final Examination

In Germany, relevant competent body such as Chamber of Trades and Handicrafts, the Chamber of Industry and the Chamber of Commerce, the Bar Association and the Schools of Administration conduct final examinations for vocational students and schools.

In Australia, registered training organizations provide training with a legal contract between the employer and the apprentice.

In South Korea, and in some technical/vocational programmes, students participate in workplace training in which there is cooperation between the schools and the local employers.

National Recognition of Vocational Schooling Award

In Australia, there is national recognition for vocational training because the assessment and awards carried out by one registered training organization is countrywide recognized in the country by both the states and the territories. There are clear boundaries between vocational and university education in Australia. This is because technical education providers provide training in the area that universities are not providing their own training.

School Financing

In Finland, technical/vocational schooling is provided free of charge, while students from low-income families receive State student grant. In South Korea, the fees that are charged by private colleges are twice that of the publicly owned institutions.

In Mexico, the federal and state government administered vocational institutions. The federal government funds the institutions to the tune of 50% from the federal budget, while the states also finance the technical institutions from their budget to the tune of 50% from their own budget too.

The Nigerian Context

  • In Nigeria, the federal government provides funds for her own institutions,
  • States are responsible for funding of their own institutions.
  • Private school owners are also responsible for the funding of their respective technical/vocational schools/colleges.

Motivating Factor

In Germany, the students receive one-third salary of a trained skilled worker in the course of his/her training while in Australia too, the apprentices and trainees receive a wage which increases as the student progress onthe training.

From above, it could be seen that various governments have shown interest in existence of vocational-based technology education.

  • Nigerian government expresses laissez faire attitude in the provision of
    technical/vocational education. This is because there is the provision for students that are “interested” clause in technical/vocational education policy in Nigeria.

  • In Nigeria, “all local governments” are expected to have functional technical school, but in reality, it is not so, because there are many local governments without a technical/vocational schools.

  • Nigerian government displays laissez faire attitude towards the provision of technical/vocational education for her citizens, and the nation is also paying for the poor attitude expressed towards the few technical/vocational education.

  • Nigeria does not have the required incentive for the beneficiaries of the technical/vocational institutions.

  • In Nigeria, the government established technical colleges that offered practical education for acquisition of skills and basic scientific knowledge.

Curriculum Consideration in other Nations

In Germany’s education system, the students study both the theory and practice of various occupations and so a combination of theoretical and practical application in workplace made vocational training successful model. In Australia, the theoretical content is defined by industry and not by the government or training providers.

In Finland however, curriculum is principally vocational while the academic part is adapted to the needs of a given course.

In Hong Kong, Institute of Vocational Education provides training indifferent fields which include: Applied Science; Business Administration; Child Education and Community Services; Construction; Design; Printing, Textiles and Clothing; Hotel, Service and Tourism Studies; Information Technology; Electrical and Electronic Engineering; and Mechanical, Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering.

Hungary runs a curriculum that combines general education, pre-vocational education and career orientation.

In India, the technical/vocational education curriculum include: commerce and business,

In Japan, her curriculum coverage includes: computer technology and fashion.

Further, in South Korea, her curriculum covers agriculture, technology/engineering, commerce/business, maritime/fishery and home-economics. In fact, the South Korean curriculum is related to the Indian curriculum.

In Mexico, the technical/vocational education is provided at the upper secondary education and its curriculum includes (i) training for work which enables the beneficiaries to be employed in the labour market and its curriculum consists of 50% theory and 50% of practical (ii) Technical Professional Baccalaureate that have 35% of general subjects and 65% of vocational subjects. Students at this stage must complete 360 hours of practical training (iii) Technological Baccalaureate whose curriculum is composed of more of (60%) general education and less of (40%) of vocational education.

Social and Economic Benefits of Vocational-Based technology Education to Nation Building

Vocational-based technology education considers abhors certain social and economic benefits. These gains are not limited to the following facts as discussed below;

  • Well implemented vocation-based technology education participation rate connects labor-market needs and leads to life satisfaction which is directly linked to a stable society.

  • Participation in vocational-based technology education (V-BTE) increases wages and improved job and career prospects, also known as employability

  • Vocation-based technology education personnel and multiple streams of income are available to households.

  • Returns from V-BTE results to self-esteem, self-valorization, self-learning and self-knowledge for participants.

  • Social returns of V-BTE are commonly measured by beneficial psychological effects on individuals in terms of motivation or attitudes, such as increasing self-esteem and self-confidence.

  • Vocational-based technology education (V-BTE) serves as a motivating force in individuals to work for the nation because it stimulates technological and industrial development.

  • Vocational-based technology education can function as a safety-net for individuals who may not be academically strong.

  • Acquired vocational-based technology education skill provides faster jobs to migrants other countries and makes them employable then those without skill.


Vocational-based technology education has become a global phenomenon and reshaping the international technology space. The trend is widely accepted by countries in Asia, Europe, America and Africa. Nigeria is dormant in accepting skills acquisition through vocational education. The study includes that Nigeria’s Technical/vocational education has not been properly developed compared to other developing countries. Nigeria is still saddled with the responsibility of setting up technical/vocational institution that are not attractive as a result of lack of equipment, motivation qualified teachers and funding. The paper discovered that vocational-based technology education is still considered as aberration in Nigeria and children are not encouraged by parents to participate. Theoretical aspect of learning and vocational skill training is not easily combined in institutions in Nigeria due to lack of government interest ability to separately. The aberration perception of parents has made children lose interest in participating in vocational-based technology education in Nigeria. Vocational-based and rehabilitation centers are established in Nigeria by individuals just to score political points. In Mexico, its curriculum includes training for work which enables the beneficiaries to be employed in the labour market and it consists of 50% theory and 50% of practical. In terms of national recognition, Nigeria has none, while Australia made provision for such. The curriculum run by technical/vocational colleges in Nigeria is strictly determined by mere interest of the child instead of encouragement from parents or government.

Lessons to Learn

The paper acquainted us with the following;

  • That in Germany, the trainees attended vocational school one or two days per week and study the theory and practical aspect of their preferred occupation.

  • Trainees also do a working apprenticeship in their chosen field, and they should receive about one-third of the salary (or as may be determined appropriate by the government) of a trained skilled worker.

  • In Australia, it was found that financial rewards were progressively given to the trainees as the training progressed, while there was national recognition for the vocational training. This was to ensure that the certificate awarded by any training organization is recognized by other established organizations and states.

  • It was further acknowledged that in Finland, vocational schooling is free, while students from low-income families are qualified for a state student grant.

  • In Nigeria vocational-based technology education is still perceived as programme for those who are academically weak.


If vocational-based technology education is to yield needed deliverables to nation building, the following recommendations should be implemented;

  • Technology education policy should be re-visited to re-draft and incorporate attractive policy on vocational technology education.

  • Education policy in Nigeria should be re-addressed to entrench vocational-based technology education into the policy into her school system.

  • National conference strictly on the state of technical/vocational education in Nigeria should be organized.

Way forward

  • It can be possible for Nigeria to emulate Germany’s dual sector technical/vocational education sector to be a dual type as done by Germany such that students learn in the classroom, and also learn by doing.

  • Nigeria can collaborate with some registered organizations and there should be a legal contract between the employer and the apprentice and provide a combination of school based and workplace training.

  • Nigeria can adopt this method by determining and caring for students from low-income families.

  • Nigeria needs to adopt a workplace training through which there will be co-operation between schools and the local employers (work-integrated learning) as it happens in South Korea.


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