The effectiveness of Igbo Apprenticeship Model in Nigeria: How Can these Master-Servant Intersection Improve Youth Employment in Nigeria’s Informal Sector.

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The effectiveness of Igbo Apprenticeship Model in Nigeria: How Can these Master-Servant Intersection Improve Youth Employment in Nigeria’s Informal Sector.

The effectiveness of Igbo Apprenticeship Model in Nigeria: How Can these Master-Servant Intersection Improve Youth Employment in Nigeria’s Informal Sector.

Jude Chidiebere Anago

University of Nigeria, Department of Banking and Finance, Enugu Campus

Abstract: In the face of extreme poverty, amplified by massive youth unemployment in Nigeria, this study theorises that collaboration between the government and private sectors to mobilise resources to restructure the Igbo apprenticeship model is a panacea to rising youth unemployment in Nigeria. Against this backdrop, this study examines the factors militating Nigeria’s Igbo apprenticeship model decline through the qualitative methodology. Results show that the apprenticeship duration, lack of education integration and provision of seed capital upon graduation from the apprenticeship training are the top three challenges triggering failure. Recommendation stressed that the Igbo apprenticeship model solely practised by the informal private sectors of Igbo origin could drop the unemployment rate in Nigeria if the government reformed the process by introducing grants or seed capital and education for the apprentice. There is optimism that both would achieve more together than the current practice where the practitioners are left practising the old-fashioned model.

Keyword: Igbo Apprenticeship model, Entrepreneurship, Job Creation, Poverty Drop, Nigeria

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ASSESSMENT OF STATE DEBT BURDENS BY GEOPOLITICAL ZONES IN NIGERIA: AN APPRAISAL

ASSESSMENT OF STATE DEBT BURDENS BY GEOPOLITICAL ZONES IN NIGERIA: AN APPRAISAL

GOODMAN DANIEL DIEGHA, PhD
Department of Economics, University of Africa
Toru-Orua, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
E-mail: Daniel_gdmn@yahoo.com
Tel: 08035481251

DR. DENNIS H. NWANYANWU, PhD
School of Foundation Studies, General Studies
Kenule Beeson Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic Bori
P. M. B. 20, Rivers State, Nigeria

Abstract;

This paper conducted an assessment of the performance of the 36 states of Nigeria considering the level of their debt burdens. The study assessed the debt burdens of states in the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Focus of the study was on states’ dependence on federal allocations, extra revenue for capital investment, fiscal bandwidth to borrow more funds and priority to invest more on capital expenditure. Materials were sourced from published journals, text books, and internet. The state hinged on “Overhang Debt Theory. The study adopted explorative review of debt burden of states ranking. It was found that; for limited dependence on federal allocations, for North-central, Taraba state had the highest ranking position while Lagos state had lowest ranking position. On remaining revenue for investment after loan repayment, Taraba state was ranked highest while Ebonyi state from South from South-East was ranked lowest. On the fiscal bandwidth to borrow more, Cross River state was ranked highest while Jigawa from North-West came lowest in the ranking position. On the priority to invest more in capital expenditure, Benue state was ranked highest while Ebonyi state came lowest in ranking. The paper suggested that government should prioritize her spending on projects. Non-viable projects should be avoided to curb spending. There should be revenue diversification to generate more funds for capital spending and government should adopt Russian approach by selling her oil in Nigerian currency at a reduced price to help increase the value of her currency.

Key words: Analysis, Debt Burdens, Geopolitical Zones, Nigeria, Appraisal

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Building a Cyber Smart Team: The Imperative for Polytechnics in Nigeria

Building a Cyber Smart Team: The Imperative for Polytechnics in Nigeria

Augustine N. Egere
Email: austinendudi@yahoo.com
Department of Computer Science, The Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State.

Abstract:

As Nigeria continues to witness rapid advancements in technology and increased internet penetration, the need for a skilled and knowledgeable workforce in cybersecurity becomes crucial. This article explores the imperative for polytechnics in Nigeria to build a cyber smart team capable of addressing evolving cyber threats and safeguarding national security. It highlights the current cybersecurity landscape in Nigeria, emphasizing the rising cyber risks and their potential impact on critical infrastructure and businesses. The author further discusses the role of polytechnics in bridging the cybersecurity skills gap by offering relevant programs and courses to equip students with essential cybersecurity knowledge and practical skills. Additionally, it emphasizes the importance of collaboration between polytechnics, industry stakeholders, and government agencies to develop comprehensive cybersecurity curricula, foster research and development, and promote industry-driven training initiatives that will ensure a secure digital future.

Keywords: cybersecurity, cyber smart team, polytechnic education, Nigeria

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Vocational Technical Education as a Tool for Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Vocational Technical Education as a Tool for Sustainable Development in Nigeria

BY

Olaleye Adebayo Adeyemi
Department of Technical Education, Oyo State College of Education, Lanlate
E-mail: olaleyeadebayoadeyemi2470@gmail.com 
Tel: 08066295556

Abstract

General consensus is that education is the most powerful instrument man has devised so far to shape his own fortune. While Vocational technical education in particular is the cornerstone for any sustainable technological development and society. Its relevant practical training components hold the key to Nigeria becoming technologically developed. This paper focused on vocational and technical education as a tool for sustainable development in Nigeria. The paper dwelt on the concept, historical overview of vocational and technical education in Nigeria as well as its roles in sustainable development. The constraints to vocational and technical education which affects its efficiency in sustainable developments were enumerated. It is expected that this paper would empower the stakeholders, especially the policy-makers, so that they genuinely accept vocational technical education as an equally important component of achieving sustainable development through the total learning system providing relevant knowledge, skills and competencies for employability, quality living and learning outcome. Consequently, vocational technical education is seen as the master key because it has the ability to open all the doors of life-long learning and improve the vocational expertise and consequently the quality of living which are components of sustainable development. Some of the recommendations proffered are that vocational and technical education should be integrated properly into the general education system. Government should provide adequate fund to support polytechnics and technical colleges to ensure that facilities are provided and maintained. The government should endeavour to develop a culture of entrepreneurial thinking by integrating entrepreneurship into nation’s education system.

Key Words: VTE, Tool, Sustainable development, Nigeria.

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THE CHALLENGES OF SOCIO – ECONOMIC INEQUALITIES AND NATION BUILDING IN NIGERIA

THE CHALLENGES OF SOCIO – ECONOMIC INEQUALITIES AND NATION BUILDING IN NIGERIA

By

Lawal Wasiu Adekunle

DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS

OYO STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, LANLATE

adeayo2007@gmail.com

Abstract

Nation building can be seen as a process of structuring a national identity using the state power which aims at the unification and integration of the people within the state so that it remains politically stable and viable in the long run. It is difficult to build nation in Nigeria because both the political and economic power has given opportunity to the rich due to biases policy – making in favour of the rich. Majority of the people still feel alienated. The tax system is largely regressive and the burden of taxation mostly falls on poorer small scale industries and individuals. It is against this backdrop that this paper examined the socio-economic inequality of nation building in Nigeria. This paper relies on secondary data collected from books, journal articles and was content analyzed in relation to the scope of the paper. The paper concludes that the rising level of socio-economic inequality in Nigeria poses a growing threat to Nigeria nation building and development. Nation building in Nigeria will continue to be hampered when a greater number of the populace continue living under frustration, hunger/ malnutrition and deprivation. It is recommended among others that government should bridge the wide gap between the rich and the poor by rising to empower especially the people at the grassroots, introducing palliative measures to cushion the effects of the economic recession and condemn undue display of wealth.

 Keyword: Nigeria, Nation-building, Socio-Economic, Inequality.

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TRADE OPENNESS AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT IN NIGERIA

TRADE OPENNESS AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT IN NIGERIA

BY

AJALA MOSHOOD ABIOLA

08163384338

 AND

LAWAL WASIU ADEKUNLE

07031692008

DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS, SCHOOL OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. (ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES PROGRAMMES)

OYO STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, LANLATE,

OYO STATE

Abstract

Trade policy is a major determinant of agricultural output in Nigeria which is considered as one of the many ways through which the nation’s economy could grow. Agricultural sector in the country is one of the sectors in which the economy has a comparative advantage. It provides raw materials for the teeming industries in the country and also constitutes the largest employer of labour (statistical Bulletin 2019). The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship that exists between trade openness and agricultural output in Nigeria. The methodology adopted was the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model, while the Cobb Douglas production theory was adopted. The data for the study was time series data spanning 39 year. Test of stationarity and the study was conducted using the Philips Perron (PP) approach. The findings revealed that the Degree of Openness had a positive relationship with agricultural output (T= 0.72). It further revealed that Government Expenditure on Agriculture had a negative correlation with the agricultural output or VAO (T= 1.28) which negate the a-priori expectation. Labour participation in agriculture was positively related and was significant to the value of agricultural output (T=11.48). The study recommends among others that government should regulate trade activities, most especially at the land borders of the country as it will help improve the outcomes of trade openness.

Keywords: Trade Openness, Agricultural Output, Nigeria

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China-US Struggle for Global Hegemony: Its Implications on the Africa’s Economy; Nigeria in View

China-US Struggle for Global Hegemony: Its Implications on the Africa’s Economy; Nigeria in View

Azubuike Francis Callistus

Department of Political Science

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State-Nigeria

cf.azubuike@unizik.edu.ng

Ezeanya Emeka Vincent

Department of Political Science

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State-Nigeria

ev.ezeanya@unizik.edu.ng

Abstract

There is a great competition and struggle for supremacy of who controls the international affairs in the emerging New World Order going on among the advanced countries of the world. This struggle is more intense among United States of America, China and Russia. This global struggle for dominance between China and America has affected the global economy with special reference to Africa in general and Nigeria in particular. In the course of the study we found out that the United States has implemented trade policies aimed at reducing its trade deficit with China and curbing China’s economic rise. China, in turn, has sought to increase its economic and political influence globally, particularly through its Belt and Road Initiative. Also, that the struggle has implications for both developed and developing countries. Developed countries have to deal with the rise of China and other emerging powers which threatens their established positions. Developing countries, in Africa, and Nigeria in particular resorted to scouting for relationships with emerging powers such as China for socio-political and economic advantages, but this comes with risks such as debt dependency and political instability. Data used was gathered from documented evidence, descriptive and qualitative data analysis was employed. The study adopted power theory of Laswell and Kaplan, H.J. Morgenthau, etc as a theoretical guide. The work recommended among other things, promotion of multilateralism, encourage economic cooperation, strengthen governance institutions, investment in education and human capital development as a way Africa can cushion the fall-out of the China-Us global struggle for dominance. 

Keywords: Hegemony, New World Order, African Economy, Global Dominance. China, United States of America, Nigeria

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The Implication of Unstable Electricity Power Supply on the Socio-Economic Activities in Nigeria: A Case of Kogi State

THE IMPLICATION OF UNSTABLE ELECTRICITY POWER SUPPLY ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN NIGERIA: A CASE OF KOGI STATE

ABAUKAKA THOMAS ONIMISI, Ph.D

 ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT,

FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, OKENE,

 KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

08032571925/ thomasabaukaka@yahoo.com

Abstract

The study x-rayed the implication of unstable electricity power supply on the socio-economic activities in Nigeria. In an attempt to obtain the results justifying the objectives of the study necessitate the gathering of necessary data from the business operators and households segments of the society. This was done through the adoption of a well structured questionnaire. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using inferential statistics owing to the nature of the data. It was established from the findings that the lack of stable electricity supply in the country with reference to the focus state, Kogi State has created a scenario whereby overhead cost of businesses has been unnecessarily heightened due to extra cost of privately generated alternative energy supply leading to unabated inflation. It has also been established that the households are enmeshed in energy poverty as they often resort to unclean and unsafe alternative domestic fuel such as firewood and wood charcoal which have both health and environmental concern. The study therefore advocates amongst others that the government should provide rural communities with solar or wind energy to boost overall energy supply in the country and that power distribution companies should immediately stop direct electric billing to customers and ensure that provision of electricity meters becomes their prime responsibility in order to improve  the efficiency in the power sector.

Keywords: Unstable electricity, power supply, socio-economic activities, Nigeria

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Assessing Women Entrepreneurship Development in Nigeria: Issues and Prospects

ASSESSING WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: ISSUES AND PROSPECTS

Ibrahim Abba Sheriff

abbasheriffibrahim@gmail.com

Department: Business Education

Federal College of Education, Okene

Abstract

Women form the backbone of Nigerian economies, accounting for a majority of small and medium-sized businesses, dominating the agriculture sector as primary producers and food processors, as well as in many service sectors. Their full economic empowerment is therefore crucial to increase productivity levels, enhance economic efficiency, and improve overall development outcomes to achieve inclusive growth. However, there was gender imbalance for a long time in the control of wealth in Nigeria particularly in the north because entrepreneurship used to be male-dominated; only men used to own businesses and controlled factors of production. This infamous trend has however dwindled especially in the last two decades but not at a satisfactory level.  This project will examine the multiple obstacles that continue to impede female entrepreneurship in Nigeria. Data that would be used are mainly from secondary sources-Federal Office of Statistics (FOS) (2018), NBS (2017) and Annabel &Mairo (2017) on the variables affecting the growth of female entrepreneurship in Nigeria, particularly in the northern region.  Sources of fuel wood, child marriage and educational exposure of Nigerian women are the three (3) main variables to be used in presenting the available data and how these combines to retard the growth of women entrepreneurship in Nigeria. Also, in-depth interviews would be carried out to complement the secondary data. Sixteen (16) female entrepreneurs shall be purposively selected from sixteen (16) systematically chosen households at Okengwe in Okene Local Government Area of Kogi State and interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire that centre on various aspects of female entrepreneurship in the State and in Nigeria as a whole. Deductions made from the data and interviews would be presented descriptively from here we make submissions on female entrepreneurship in Nigeria. The research will recommend among others delaying age at marriage and completing at least secondary education by all girls in order to increase women entrepreneurship and reduce poverty among Nigerian women.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, women, Nigeria

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Social Identities Matter: Diversity and the Quagmire of Ethno-Religious Identification in Workplaces in Nigeria.

SOCIAL IDENTITIES MATTER: DIVERSITY AND THE QUAGMIRE OF ETHNO-RELIGIOUS IDENTIFICATION IN WORKPLACES IN NIGERIA.

Miebi Ugwuzor

Department of Management, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, P.M.B. 071, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. +2348036666332. miebi.ugwuzor@ndu.edu.ng

ABSTRACT                                                                

The examination of identity issues bothering employees and hindering the full attainment of their productive potentials were the major focus of this work. Nigeria’s informal social makeup comprises of persons of diversified ethnic and religious extractions variably distributed in a vast population size of persons with ample potentials and diversified strengths capable of usefully contributing to the fortunes of workplaces. However, this has not played out as expected. This work highlights the behavioral implications of social-identification in workplaces and intends to lend a voice to the discourse on social identification, stressful work experiences as well as workplace behavior management. It also raises questions on phenomenological interpretations in the minds of contemporary compatriots of Nigeria as a nation of people bound in freedom, peace and unity. The social-identity and the social stress theories were explored in an attempt to explicate the interpretations of the meanings persons make of their behaviors and those of their colleagues at work.  The outcome of such ingrained analysis depicts the extent to which identities they assume matter in the situation being experienced. This paper suggests amongst others that firms should stress and institutionalize the primary focus of corporate success over primordial sentiments in workplaces for the betterment of individual, workplaces as well as for national development.

Keywords: Development, diversity, ethnicity, equity, identity, religion, Nigeria

INTRODUCTION

The 1914 amalgamation of the Northern Nigeria Protectorate together with the colony and protectorate of Southern Nigeria as a unified British Administrative Colony may have signaled the effective take off of the Project Nigeria which is still very much on course and with very great potentials for higher developmental goals attainment. Nigeria’s natural, human as well as other apparent and latent resources are enormous and could be more beneficial to her citizenry and for national development if harnessed and properly utilized.  However, several features of sub optimization have been observed in the state of her national development over time and possible solutions proffered for the reasons adduced (Adams, 2019; Ugwuzor, 2019). Suffice it to say that concerted attempts are ongoing at articulating the mores, values, norms, codes of conduct, legislations as well as other efforts at putting the right developmental building blocks in place.

Nigeria has very talented and industrious persons many of whom are willing and able youths ready to be positively engaged in productive ventures. The amassed work behavioral outcomes of persons who are engaged in the various productive sectors of an economy culminate to its success or failure depending on the direction of the outcomes. It is the desire of this work that the direction of employee outcomes is highly positive. However, this could be possible only if employees are in their right frame of mind.   Undoubtedly, the average employee working in the contemporary Nigerian work environment could be inundated with myriads of issues capable of destabilizing the mind frame and adversely affecting work behavior. However, if an employee is bothered by a basic unit of demography such as identity which he/she may not be able to do much about, the tendency of the work behavioral outcome to nose dive is high (Jaja & Ugwuzor, 2014). One’s identity is who one is.  Persons may have identity crises when they either lose track of who they are or do not feel happy with who they are. A major transformation in a person’s personality and the way they do things may occur if they have an identity crisis. Nigeria is made of about 250 ethnic groups with several languages and dialects (The World Factbook, 2019). The beauty of such diversified strengths is that the uniqueness of each group compliments the other and when pooled together in a coherent manner will be for the mutual benefit of all.  This may also imply that the population may comprise a vast array of potentially skilled persons of diverse creeds and skill sets which are variably distributed among the groups and are available to do meaningful work. However, this has not been the case as the various outputs of productive sectors have left much to be desired.  It is apparently perceived that each ethnic group attempts to assert dominance over the other in the eyes of the other. This perceptual position seems to be permeating workplaces.

One of the contemporary workplace practices is to promote diversity in their employment profile by bringing in persons of various levels of diversity not only to be able to get various shades of opinions representing the various groups and interests but as a social responsive stance. However, misconceptions, misunderstanding, mistrust and misinterpretations, due to ethno-religious lines of thought, have over the years made Nigeria to miss growth and developmental opportunities. There is an apparent disconnect between the supposed national values, beliefs and orientation and actual behavioral display as exhibited by employees in workplaces. Ethnic and religious bigotry have destroyed shared corporate culture and interest of commitment to excellence which should be the driving force towards corporate success. This man-made, self -inflicted and self-destructive behaviors seem to thrown the doctrines of unity in diversity to the winds in spite of all the cogent efforts through such lofty programmes of National orientation   and re-orientation such as the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) Scheme, the Federal Unity Colleges and guided implementation of the Federal Character Principle which is intended to make every ethnic group eligible to be considered equally in the scheme of things in workplaces in Nigeria.

The multilingual, multi-religious, multicultural nature of Nigeria’s informal social makeup makes it imperative for individuals to tend to identify themselves every now and then along these lines  as these social groupings tend to define and determine perks accruable at any particular time. One definition of social identity refers to a person’s sense of self, derived from perceived membership in social groups. When one feels that one belongs to a group, there is the tendency that one may very well derive at least a portion of sense of identity from that group (Charness & Chen, 2020). One’s ability to identify oneself with the social categories with the most privileges and benefits at any point in time will tend to be most attractive and beneficial to the individual. Thus perpetrating the drawbacks of the in-group- out-group favoritism and undermining the meritorious use of one’s skills and ability to contribute to society. Whether one chooses to identify with an ethnic and/ or religious group or not, persons will tend to categorize themselves and others along such social categorizations and treat them with their own preconceived biases.

The examination of social identity issues bothering employees as well as the workplace implications of their work behavioral manifestations necessitated this work. This work promises to contribute to the discourse on social identification, stressful work experiences and workplace behavior management in a diversity laden work setup with overtones for diversity and inclusion strategies for the betterment of individual, workplaces as well as for national development.

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

Situational factors such as the name one bears, the friends one keeps, as well as social group, location or associates at any given time, seem to be a determining factor in the definition of oneself. In other words the individual or social nomenclature adopted, associated with or presented may be an object for persecution or concession. To this end, persons tend to be overly conscious of and concerned about ones identifier at any given time in order to garner as much privileges as possible. Mustapha and Ehrhardt (2018) posited that indigeneship translates economic competition into interfaith or political confrontation as well as intensifies  the ethnic or religious nature of the struggle over ownership, control and resources The quagmire of ethno-religious identification in Nigerian workplaces seems to make mockery of the ‘unity in diversity’ being largely proclaimed. Social identification is the way oneself is defined in the context of the social situation one finds oneself. In workplaces in Nigeria, the inability of one to see oneself as the same irrespective of the environment is of great concern. Despite the professed unity in diversity, persons seem to lack trust in the system as they perceive inequity and lack of transparency which makes them overly worried about how they identify themselves. For example, when persons feel that career advancement is a function of specific in-group membership as well as other inherent autochthonous claims, the fear of sabotaging their career makes them tend to assume different identities at different times. This work relies on the social stress theory as well as the social identification theory to elucidate the innuendoes of social identification and the dynamics in an ethno-religious conscious work environment.

The Social Stress Theory highlights issues of social inequality and disparities. The theory postulates that persons with disadvantaged social status are more likely to be exposed to stressors and to be more vulnerable to stress because they have limited psychosocial coping resources (Mossakowski, 2014). Depressive symptoms as well as other presentations of such dispositions tend to lead to a higher risk of mental health and well-being issues (Mossakowski, 2014; Ward, Feinstein, Vines, Robinson, Haan & Aiello,2019). The Social Identity Theory sets the tone on how persons identify, categorize and compare themselves and the groups they belong to with other individuals and groups in social settings (Tajfel & Turner, 2004). The theory provides the fundamentals in the understanding of the psychological foundation for intergroup prejudice. Ujoatuonu, Kanu, Ugwuibe and Mbah (2019) have opined that Nigeria is  a heterogeneous and multi-ethnic state beset by numerous cleavages and centrifugal tendencies. The Country is characterized by ethnic, religious and cultural pluralism which has been part of the very fabric that defines people’s identity. The Nigerian situation seems to be an abuse of social identification as this is often used as an instrument of exploitation, manipulation and ennoblement to obtain the most privileges to the detriment of the generality. Primordial sentiments have been indicted as being responsible for the dearth of national patriotism, values and respect for democratic cultures all of which affects nation building (Sokoh, 2019). The consequential effects of identity could be both positive and negative for firms.  As a positive force, Mossakowski (2018) observed that a strong ethnic identity, which encompasses ethnic pride and knowledge, involvement in ethnic practices, and a cultural commitment or feeling of belonging to one’s ethnic group, significantly benefits mental health. On the other hand, one’s sense and commitment to a social group could be dangerously limiting. The issue of self-identity, in the negative sense which is the hallmark of in identity politics, has been seen as a veritable tool which has unfortunately been used more and more as a wedge to separate subgroups (Charness & Chen,2020). The Social Identity Theory provides a basis for gaining a more precise and ingrained comprehension of interpersonal interactions in cases of ethnic and religious mixes.

 Ethnicity and religion are two key diversity dimensions which have bedeviled the progressiveness of the productive capacities of several workplaces in Nigeria. Osimen, Balogun and Adenegan (2013) have noted that ethnicity, tribalism, politics of prebendalism, elitism, greed, antagonism, civil strives, corruption and so on have  motivated crises and underdevelopment  in Nigeria. Osaghae (2020) on his part adduced that ethnicity is a problematic phenomenon whose character is conflictual rather than consensual. Osaghae (2020) further stressed that ethnicity is a conscious behavior based on ethnic identity or loyalty in a competitive situation involving more than one such identity, which is aimed at furthering interests of the individual and/or group. It has been noted that power and resource allocation are monopolized by a selected few in the pluralistic society at the expense of other groups (Onwumere, 2019). The reoccurring ethno-religious conflicts therefore, is inextricably tied to the problem of identity and the problem of citizenship which are rooted in the psycho-political perception of Nigeria by an average Nigerian (Sokoh, 2019). Thus, making bickering and rivalry among the diversity dimensions of the component units a major challenge in the quest for unity among the diverse groups. This situation may not be too different in the case of religion where the primordial sentiments tend to be exploited by religious bigots through epithets of derogatory and pejorative allusions as well as other myopic and self-destructive tendencies that cause divisions and intolerance in order to gain access to power and control of resources. Ogunleye (2021) seem to insinuate that religious pluralism in Nigeria may be expressed informs of oppression, domination, exploitation and manipulation.

BEHAVIORAL IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIAL-IDENTIFICATION IN WORKPLACES

The more people are overly consciously reminded of who they are or the social grouping to identify with in workplaces, the more certain behaviors antithetical to growth, creativity and harmonious working relationships, become manifest. Some of the said behaviors will be highlighted in this section to lend a voice to the discourse diversity and inclusivity and amplify the behavioral implications of self-identification.

OPPRESSIVE TENDENCIES

A measure of diversity Management is the extent to which employees are bothered about issues that differentiate them from others. In other words diversity will be said to have been adequately managed in workplaces if and when employees do not have concerns on what differentiates them from colleagues at work.  In work scenarios where certain individuals or groups believe that the structure and mandate for the control of power and resources in the firm lie within them,   there is the tendency to want to lord it over, and invariably, bully the other individuals or groups as the case may be. The place will be devoid of the basic elements of a progressive work climate.  The oppressed party or parties feel threatened, intimidated and humiliated. Ojedokun, Oteri and Ogungbamila (2014) believe that the workplace is supposed to be a second home for employees and that certain social etiquette and norms for appropriate interpersonal relationship ought to be adhered to. When this is not the case, then workplace bullying occurs. Workplace bullying include hostile   behavioral expressions in the workplace that tend to use physical, verbal, or psychological cues to cause intimidation fear, or distress to the victim (Namie & Namie,2011).

TURNOVER PROPENSITY

 Progressive firms ought to hiring and make conscious efforts to retain their best hands. Under-performing employees may also be spurred to higher performance by understudying high achievers. This is for the benefit of the firm. However, when the workplace does not have an atmosphere of friendliness and employees do not feel appreciated for their valued contributions especially because of their social identities, the employee turnover propensity is likely to increase. Pawirosumarto, Sarjana and Gunawan (2017) have observed that creating a safe, equitable and welcoming work environment is  challenging but when critically considered could result in positive employee performance and job satisfaction. Zambrana, Valdez, Pittman, Bartko, Weber and Parra‐Medina (2021) put forward that workplace discrimination triggers stress levels as well as depressive symptoms and affect employee early morbidity and premature departures.

SECRECY

Some desirable features of a good work environment are openness and transparently honest communication and interpersonal relationships.  When firms’ mission and goals are paramount in the minds of employees, they are challenged to make meaningful contributions towards such goals. However, when there are disaffections, rancor, misconceptions and misinterpretations    between individuals and groups, persons may be unwilling to divulge useful information or suggestions that will make the ‘enemy party’ succeed to the detriment of the organization. Workplace rivalry has led to aggression and secrecy which has negatively impacted on employee performance in organizations(Igbadoo, Lawal, Shehu & Ikebuoso, 2021).

CONFLICTS

Personal and social identity are fundamental and symbolic tools with which individuals can adapt to reality which has implications for personal and social adjustment and inclusiveness (Crocetti, Prati & Rubini, 2018). Selfhood and identity are affected by the groups to which people belong as well as the potential benefits for the individual (Ellemers, Spears & Doosje, 2002). Conflict of people interests who gets what power, position, supremacy struggles, with increased cases of factionalization and situations that demand answers to questions such as what benefits accrue to us? Who gets the lion share? What opportunities do I and my group members have in this deal? The coveted social fabric for unity could be abraded by divisive politics, interpersonal conflict, ethno-religious rancor, over consciousness of one’s identity and so on.

DELIBERATE SABOTAGE

An unhealthy workplace is characterized by the prevalence of bitterness, rancor and hostility. In such a scenario, employees perceive the lack of understanding, cooperation, respect, compassion, support, haphazard upward mobility standards, to mention a few. In An unhealthy workplace   employees seem to have no sense of belonging, and find the work as physically and psychologically sapping. Depending on the work structure, employees who work on a nine to five or eight-to –four basis will spend at least one third of the day at the workplace.  If the workplace atmosphere tends to lack cooperation and values of shared purpose as well as understanding of interpersonal relationship, especially when there is lack of trust in the intentions of coworkers, there is ample reason for fear and doubts (Wu, He, Imran & Fu, 2020). Employees could seem paranoid with inter group tensions and distrust with less thought and effort at doing productive work. These will not only affect the functionality of the employees and productivity for the firm but also enhance firm’s chances of failure. Employees feel unhappy and detached from their jobs. They have no desire to take prosocial actions nor any voluntary helping behavior. The employees feel lack of commitment to excellence and may tend to deliberately sabotage the effort of a person in charge of an organizational activity just because the person is not in the desired social in-group. Sabotage is a deviant behavior commonly associated with injustice (Ambrose, Seabright & Schminke,2002) The disgruntled person will vent his/her venom  on any individual or organizational process in order to give him/herself a sense of justice.  This can be evident in an employee’s deliberate attempt at reducing pace, quality and /or quantity of work output, theft of firms resources including time. Ezeh, Etodike, and Nwanzu (2018) have described employee sabotage as a dimension of counterproductive work behavior in organizations by an employee which serves the best interest of the employee without the consideration of the norms of the organization or her goals.

VIOLENCE

Violence could range from physical or verbal assaults, hate speeches, threats to life and other threating tendencies. Not much will be achieved in a workplace where violence holds sway. Osaghae (2020) surmises that the need to belong is a basic human need and that the Nigerian state, as with other African countries, is trapped in a crisis of belonging  and further asserts that Nigeria suffers from deep seated divisions which cause major political issues which are often vigorously and violently contested along the lines of intricate ethnic, religious and regional divisions. Slavich (2022) suggests that many of life’s most impactful experiences that affect interpersonal cognition and behavior involve either social safety such as acceptance, affiliation, belonging, inclusion or social threat such as conflict, isolation, rejection, aggression, devaluation, discrimination and exclusion. It has been advanced that a single maladaptive encounter in the workplace is enough to adversely affect an employee’s stress level (Lazarus, 2020). This inability to cope with high levels of psychological distress could lead to the manifestation of violent behaviors (Hill, Mossakowski & Angel, 2007).

 DELINQUENT WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR

As big shortcomings of social identity, favoritism and discrimination have made employees to adopt certain behaviors and attached certain stereotypical positions towards others outside their categorical groupings. A Nigerian Pidgin English paradoxical aphorism that Monkey dey work baboon dey chop tend to control of the sensibilities of marginalized out-groups.  The axiom implies that marginalized group members feel they work hardest and benefit the least. Disfavoured persons may perceive injustice and tend to behave in certain delinquent manners to the detriment of the firm. Such delinquencies could be expressed as forms of deviant behaviors. Deviant behaviors also known as disruptive behaviors are voluntary behaviors that violate significant organizational norms and in so doing threaten the well-being of an organization itself, its individual members, or both (Afzali, Nouri, Ebadi,  Khademolhoseyni & Rejeh, 2017; Bennett, Marasi & Locklear, 2018). Many reasons have been attributable to cause deviant workplace behaviors. They include individual, organizational, environmental, and social factors such as personality characteristics, dissatisfaction, frustration, anger management issues, perceived injustice and so on (Afzali et al., 2017).

WAY FORWARD

Nigerians are supposed to be Nigerians irrespective of where they come from in terms of linage or origin. Their contributions to society should be reckoned by their skills or abilities. The apparent  rivalry between  and among the majority  and minority ethnic groups, the  struggle and tussle for power and resource control  of the  various dichotomous groups as well as other subtleties in the diversity mapping in the contending situations may have made the Nigerian ethnic  and other in-group- out- group factionalization very convoluted.  Each time the talk of the unity and indivisibility of Nigeria is highlighted and the need to select persons for momentous tasks, the divisions seem more pronounced which negates the core intension which is capacity utilization for National development. As a point of departure from the foregoing precarious and undesirable situations, organizations should have strong institutional frameworks with the right intensions.

The organizations should not be weary in the effort at intensifying employee thought processes towards believing that each person has a common stake and that all employees have a shared ownership of the success or failures of the organization thus eliminating negative stereotypes about social out-groups. By making the organizations success the general focus and interpersonal bonding institutionalized, primordial sentiments could be eliminated.

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