Management of School Security for Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Rivers State

  • -

Management of School Security for Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Rivers State

Category : Uncategorized

MANAGEMENT OF SCHOOL SECURITY FOR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN RIVERS STATE

BY

Onyekwere, Nwokeukwu

Department of Educational management,

Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt

08037445717 E-Mail: mandivworld@yahoo.com

&

Dr. (Mrs). Patricia. C. Ukaigwe

Department of Educational management,

Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt

08033381042, E-Mail: ukaigwewep17@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

This study investigated management of school security for academic achievement of secondary school students. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The research design was descriptive survey. The population consisted of 828 principals in public secondary schools in Rivers State. A sample of 394 principals was chosen using Taro yamen sampling formula and later stratified using stratified random sampling technique based on the three senatorial zones. It utilized a structured questionnaire based on modified four point likert type scale of Strongly agree, Agree, Disagree and Strongly disagree. This was validated and had a reliability of 0.824. Mean and rank order scores were used to analyze the research questions, while z-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of this work reveals that ways implementation of school security policies enhance the academic achievement of secondary school students are, it  promotes security consciousness amongst staff and students, maintaining minimum standard in security management, and the strategies for managing insecurity includes; security facilities should be efficiently utilized, a secure conducive atmosphere should be provided in schools, adequate plans should be made in anticipation of a risk, involving staff and students in security management, developing school security programmes, engaging staff in emergency safety drills, and providing adequate security facilities. The hypotheses tested revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of principals serving in urban areas and principals serving in rural areas on the ways implementation of security policies enhance academic achievement, and there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of principals serving in urban areas and principals serving in rural areas on the strategies for managing insecurity in secondary schools in Rivers a State. Based on the findings, the researcher recommends that regular in-service trainings on security management should be arranged for teachers by the ministry of education, and that security gadgets should be installed in all schools.

Keywords: Management, Security, Academic achievement

Introduction

Security threats in Nigeria system has received more attention compared to any other issue plaguing the Nigerian system in recent times. Unfortunately, the issue of security has extended from the political arena to the educational sector as well as other sectors of the economy. This can readily be seen in the number of abduction of students, kidnap of students and teachers, attacks by unknown gun men, the menace of herdsmen, banditry, etc. Aside from these, the school system faces many more security threats in the form of dilapidated infrastructure, natural disaster like flooding, cultism and acts from bullies. This clearly shows why it is imperative that more attention be given to management of security in secondary schools.

Management though could be viewed as a process by which an organized group directs attention towards the achievement of set organizational goals. The National Policy on Education (2014) stipulated the goals of secondary education to include the two broad goals namely; preparing individuals for useful living in the society and preparing them for higher education. These two goals on the other hand cannot be achievement in an insecure environment. A school environment that is marred by insecurity cannot realistically achieve these set goals of secondary education. It is therefore necessary that educational managers endeavour to put materials together towards ensuring a secure work environment. Management is achievement oriented and utilization of resources constitutes its primary task, Ogbonna (2018). Thus, managers need to continuously manipulate the available resources at their disposal to ensure security of the school system. 

Security could be considered to be state of freedom from all sorts of harm and injury. It implies that the human resources in the workplace feel a measure of convenience while in the work environment. It is moreover dependent on the top management to create this enabling environment for the human resources. In view of this, ThankGod (2018) opined that the failure and poor productivity an organization experiences shows how ineffective and inefficient the management has been. In order to achieve the goals of secondary education, school managers are expected to adopt adequate measures and steps that would in the long run promote effective teaching and enhance academic performance of students.

The Nigerian system has witnessed a huge amount of changes in the past decades. A quick analysis of the past five decades, one can readily note that insecurity was not a major issue in the country then. Sadly, the past 13 years have witnessed unprecedented rise in insecurity plaguing the entire system and the education sector in particular. We have seen cases of abduction of hundreds of students, killings of innocent students, and attacks of herdsmen in schools, etc.

Principals as managers must therefore ensure that they are aware of security situations in their school, have a procedure to follow up on the security threats, and must enlighten students, staff and visitors of what steps to take during an emergency.

Statement of the Problem

Despite the beautiful efforts of the government in ensuring that adequate security is guaranteed in secondary schools through activities such as ban on corporal punishment, establishment of counseling units, laws enacted by authorities etc, security threats have remained a major problem plaguing our educational sector. The security threats witnessed in secondary schools are no longer accidental or coincidental, but have advanced to well planned and premeditated actions geared not just at causing bodily harm, but death to supposed victims. This could be seen from the number of kidnaps, and abduction of innocent school students and teachers, attacks on schools by unknown gun men, herdsmen menace, explosion of explosives in the school environment, etc. It is thus obvious that insecurity is in an alarming state in Nigeria which unfortunately is directly affecting the educational industry. It is the challenges posed by security threats on schools that this study is bordered about.

Aim and Objectives of the study

The aim of this study is to investigate management of school security for academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State. Specifically, the objectives include to;

  1. determine how school security policies are being implemented to ensure academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State.
  2. identify the strategies of managing insecurity in schools for academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State.

Research Questions

In the light of these objectives, the following research questions were raised

  1. In what ways does implementation of school security policies enhance academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State?
  2. What are the strategies of managing insecurity in schools for academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State?

Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance;

Ho1: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals in urban areas and principals in rural areas on ways implementation of security policies enhance academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State.

Ho2: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals in urban areas and principals in rural areas on the strategies of managing insecurity for academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State.

Methodology

The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study and the population comprise of 828 principals serving in rural and urban secondary schools in Rivers State. The sample size of 394 principals was drawn using taro yamen sampling technique and later stratified based on the three senatorial zones in Rivers State. The researchers used a structured questionnaire titled management of school security for academic achievement of secondary school students (MSSAASSS) to elicit data from respondents. The instrument was validated by experts in the field of security. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) was used to establish the reliability index of 0.824. Mean and rank order was used to answer the research questions, while Z-test statistics was used to test the null hypotheses to ascertain significant difference at 0.05 level of significance

Results

Answers to Research Questions

Research question one:  In what ways does implementation of school security policies enhance academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State?

Table 1: School Security Policy Implementation for Achievement of Secondary Education Goals

S/N   Urban  (n= 230) Rural  (n= 162)      
  School security policy implementation for achievement of  education goals X 1 SD1 X 2 SD2 Σ X Rank Order Decision
1 Sets direct clear security goals and objectives 3.59 0.63 3.58 0.63 3.58 2nd Agreed
2 Brings about openness in security management 2.51 1.17 2.42 1.18 2.47 8th Disagreed
3 Ensures management’s commitment to continuously improve safety 2.71 1.02 2.63 1.04 2.68 6th Agreed
4 Ensures management and employee accountability 2.47 0.97 2.39 0.92 2.43 9th Disagreed
5 Brings about continuous improvement in security level 2.57 1.04 2.58 1.04 2.58 7th Agreed
6 Building upon existing security procedures 3.68 0.65 3.75 0.57 3.72 1st Agreed
7 Maintains minimum standard in security management 2.93 0.94 2.87 0.97 2.90 4th Agreed
8 Leads to continuity of organizational processes 2.86 1.01 2.81 1.03 2.83 5th Agreed
9 Promotions security consciousness amongst staff and students 3.00 1.02 3.01 1.00 3.00 3rd Agreed
  Total 2.92 0.93 2.89 0.93 2.91   Agreed

When the responses of urban and rural principals were subjected to statistical analysis on ways implementation of school security policies enhance academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State, respondents agreed that sets direct clear security goals and objectives (3.58), ensures management commitment to continuously improve security (2.68), brings about continuous improvement in security level (2.58), building upon existing security procedures (3.72), and maintains minimum standard of security management (2.90). It was also agreed that continuity of organizational processes (2.83) and promotion of security consciousness amongst staff and students (3.00) was ways through which implementation of security policies enhance achievement of secondary school goals in Rivers State.

Research question two:  What are the strategies of managing insecurity in schools for academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State?

Table 2: Strategies of Managing Insecurity in Secondary Schools

S/N Strategies of managing insecurity for the achievement of secondary education goals Urban (n=230) Rural (n =162)      
    X 1 SD1 X 2 SD2 Σ X Rank Order Decision
10 Setting clear security goals 2.67 1.06 2.65 1.04 2.66 5th Agreed
11 Ensuring regular security programs 2.95 1.08 2.93 1.04 2.94 1st Agreed
12 Regular security inspection 2.69 0.99 2.71 0.99 2.70 4th Agreed
13 Provision of adequate security facilities 2.69 0.99 2.72 0.97 2.70 4th Agreed
14 Regular security trainings for staff 2.87 1.00 2.98 0.93 2.92 2nd Agreed
15 Involving students in security matters 2.55 0.98 2.56 0.94 2.55 6th Agreed
16 Provision of incentives for security conscious staff 2.80 1.05 2.81 1.07 2.81 3rd Agreed
  Grand Mean 2.74 1.03 2.75 0.98 2.75   Agreed

When the opinion of urban and rural principal were requested on the strategies of managing insecurity for academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State, it was agreed setting clear security goals (2.66), ensuring regular security programs (2.94), regular security inspection (2.70), provision of adequate security facilities (2.70), regular security trainings for staff (2.92), involving students in security matters (2.55), and provision of incentives for security conscious staff (2.81) were all strategies of managing insecurity for the achievement of secondary school goals. In addition, a grand mean of 2.75 was obtained which revealed that the strategies were accepted.

Test of hypotheses

Hypothesis one: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals in urban areas and principals in rural areas on ways implementation of security policies can enhance academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State, Nigeria.

Table 3. Z-test analysis of the difference between the mean scores of urban and rural principals on ways implementation of security policies enhance academic achievement

Location N Mean SD Df Z-Cal Z-Crit Decision
Urban 230 2.63 1.06   390   0.19   1.960   Accepted
Rural 162 2.66 1.04

As shown from table 3, when the mean values of respondents in urban schools (2.63), and those from rural schools (2.66) was subjected to independent sample Z-test, the result revealed that a Z-calculated value of 0.19 was obtained which was lesser than the Z-critical value of 1.960. This therefore indicates that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of principals in urban areas and principals in rural areas on ways implementation of security policies enhance academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State, Nigeria. The null hypothesis was therefore retained.

Hypothesis Two: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals in urban areas and principals in rural areas on the strategies of managing insecurity in schools for academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State, Nigeria.

Table 4. Z-test analysis of the difference between the mean scores of principals in urban areas and principals in rural areas on strategies of managing insecurity in schools for academic achievement

Location N Mean SD Df Z-Cal Z-Crit Decision
Urban 230 2.75 0.98   390   0.68   1.960   Accepted
Rural 162 2.74 1.03

As shown from table 4, when the mean values of respondents in urban schools (2.75), and those from rural schools (2.74) were subjected to independent sample Z-test, the result revealed that a Z-calculated value of 0.68 was obtained which was lesser than the Z-critical value of 1.960. This therefore indicates that there was no significant difference in the mean rating of principals in urban areas and principals in rural areas on the strategies for managing insecurity for achievement of secondary education goals in Rivers State.

Discussion of findings

As analyzed on table 1, the findings of research question one reveals that the ways implementation of school security policies enhance achievement of secondary school goals in Rivers State are, that it sets clear security goals and objectives, ensures management commitment to continuously improve safety, brings about continuous improvement in security level, building upon existing security procedures, maintains minimum standard of security management, leads to continuity of organizational processes, and promotion of security consciousness amongst staff and students.  This is in agreement with the study of Udenwa (2015) who carried out a study on assessment of challenges inhibiting safety management in secondary schools in Rivers state, which revealed that the unavailability of clear safety objectives, lack of training for teachers and lack of regular safety inspection were challenges inhibiting safety management in secondary schools. It equally agrees with Chukwudi (2018), who conducted a study on safety management for quality work environment of public primary schools in Abia State, which revealed that safety risk management programs can enhance the quality of the work environment in public primary schools. 

The implication of these findings shows the need for school administrators to set clear school security policies and ensure that those policies are strictly adhered to. When security policies are made in school, it helps to curb security threats. The statistical analysis of hypothesis one however revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of urban and rural principals on ways implementation of security policies enhance achievement of secondary school goals in Rivers State, Nigeria.

As analyzed on table 2, the findings of research question two reveal that the strategies of managing insecurity for the achievement of secondary school goals in Rivers State, Nigeria includes; setting clear security goals, ensuring regular security programs, regular security inspection, provision of adequate security facilities, regular security trainings for staff, involving students in security matters, and provision of incentives for security conscious staff.         This finding is in agreement with Ukaigwe and Mba (2016), who carried out a study on principal’s role on security in secondary schools in the 21st century in Emohua local government area of Rivers state, which revealed that existing ways of managing security in secondary schools include provision of adequate security equipment, training of newly employed security staff, and introducing government-community participation. It is also in agreement with Chukwudi (2018), who conducted a study on safety management for quality work environment of public primary schools in Abia State, which revealed that safety risk management programmes can enhance the quality of the work environment in public primary schools. It is also in line with Hassan, (2018), who carried out a study on safety practices in public secondary schools in Kwara state, which revealed that there was little or moderate level safety practices in most public schools in Kwara state, thus there is need for greater awareness to be created in safety management which in turn will help in managing safety problems. It is also in consonance with Mohammed, (2016), who carried out a study on management of educational facilities for safety purpose in Kaduna state, which revealed that maintenance of educational facilities, removal of damaged facilities and participation of stakeholders are so some ways managing safety issues in schools.

Summary of Findings

The findings revealed that ways implementation of school security policies enhance the academic achievement of secondary school students are; that it builds upon existing safety procedures, setting direct clear safety and health goals and objectives, it promoting safety consciousness amongst staff and students, maintaining minimum standard in safety and health management, establishing a means of meeting security goals, it builds upon existing safety procedures, and it leads to continuity of organizational processes. The strategies for managing insecurity includes; security facilities should be efficiently utilized, a secure conducive atmosphere should be provided in schools, adequate plans should be made in anticipation of a risk, involving staff and students in security management, developing school security programmes, engaging staff in emergency safety drills, providing adequate security facilities. There was no significant difference in the mean ratings of principals serving in urban areas and principals serving in rural areas on how security policies are being implemented for goal achievement in Rivers state. There was no significant difference in the mean ratings of principals serving in urban areas and principals serving in rural areas on the strategies for managing school security in Rivers State

Conclusion

In line with the findings of this study, it is concluded that implementation of school security policies leads to setting of direct clear security goals and objectives, promotes security consciousness amongst staff and students, maintains minimum standard in security management, and leads to continuity of organizational processes. On the other hand, strategies for providing and  efficiently utilizing security facilities, providing a secure conducive atmosphere, making plans in anticipation of a risk, involving staff and students in security management, and engaging staff in emergency security drills are all ways of managing security in secondary schools.

Recommendations

  1. The ministry of education should carefully consider the security of the school when mapping out a school site.
  2. Government should make and implement good security polices at all levels of education.
  3. The ministry of education should incorporate school security training into our education curriculum just the way it is in the engineering fields.
  4. Regular in-service trainings on security management should be arranged for teachers by the ministry of education.
  5. Security gadgets should be installed in all schools e.g turnstile

References

Chukwudi, J. (2018). Safety management for quality work environment of public primary schools in Abia State. An unpublished thesis of Abia State University, Uturu.

Hassan. M. (2018) Safety practices in public secondary schools in Kwara state. International  Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Sciences. 5(6) 22-35.

Mohammed, H. (2016). Management of educational facilities for safety purpose in Kaduna state. International journal of science and technology, 5(9), 256-271.

National policy on Education (2016)

Ogbonna, S. (2018). Effect of insecurity of school environment on the academic performance of secondary school students. Academic Journal of Science, 5(1) 138-151

ThankGod, B. (2018). Management of school facilities for academic achievement in Government secondary schools in Abia State. International Journal of Science Education, 5(6) 23-38.

Udenwa, A. (2015). Assessment of challenges inhibiting safety management in secondary schools in Rivers state. An unpublished thesis of University of Port Harcourt.

Ukaigwe, P.C. & Mba, C.O. (2016). Principal’s role on security in secondary schools in the 21st    century in Emohua. African Journal of Educational Research and Development, 8(2), 418-425.

 

 

View/Download/Print

 


Google Scholar

 

Impact Factor

2018 : 3.466

2015 : 0.676

Current impact factor evaluation is in progress.

Call for papers

Research Articles written in English Language are invited from interested researchers in the academic community and other establishments for publication. Authors who wish to submit manuscripts should ensure that the manuscripts have not been submitted elsewhere neither is it under consideration in another journal. The articles should be the original work of the authors. High quality theoretical and empirical original research papers, case studies, review papers, literature reviews, book reviews, conceptual framework, analytical and simulation models, technical note from researchers, academicians, professional, practitioners and students from all over the world are welcomed.