Generation, Characteristics and Uses of Industrial Wastes as Construction Materials: A Review
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Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.
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Industrial wastes can be defined as wastes generated by industrial activities which are made up of materials that are made worthless through manufacturing operations. For example, scrap metal, slag, fly ash, sludge, paints, etc. Industrial wastes can be classified based on their properties and effects into; industrial solid wastes and industrial liquid wastes. Industrial solid wastes are any type of solid by-product of an industrial process. Industrial solid waste can be generated by manufacturing procedures such as: electric power creation, iron and steel manufacturing, the utilization of agricultural chemicals and inorganic chemicals, plastics and resins manufacturing, water treatment. Industrial liquid wastes are any waste product that leave the production facility in liquid form. Industrial liquid wastes can be produced at chemical plants, manufacturing facilities, and pharmaceuticals factories; that all generate wastewater, and typically on an extensive scale. Industrial wastes can be very harmful for us and our environment. Having said that, what may be considered wastes in one industry can be used as raw materials in some other industry. For example, Industrial wastes in the agricultural industry (rice husk) can be used for making concrete in the construction industry. The main uses of industrial wastes in the construction industry include; 1. Soil stabilization: is the method of enhancing the shear strength parameters of soil and consequently increases the bearing capacity of soil. Soil stabilization using cement and lime may not always be required due to the availability of cheaper additives which may be used to modify the soil properties. This is due to their Pozzolanic properties. 2. Construction Materials; due to the unsustainability of natural resources in construction, eg sand, crust, cement and water, it is necessary to use industrial wastes materials (fly ash, foamed slag, sludge, bagasse ash, etc) in construction as better environmental, performance and economic alternatives.