Category Archives: Uncategorized

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HARNESSING GENDER EDUCATION: OVER-COMING BARRIERS TO GIRLS EDUCATION IN TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION TRAINING (TVET) IN NIGERIA

HARNESSING GENDER EDUCATION: OVER-COMING BARRIERS TO GIRLS EDUCATION IN TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION TRAINING (TVET) IN NIGERIA

BY

DR. NTOR-UE, JOANAH GBENEKANU
Department Of General Studies
Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic,
Rumuola, Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

Abstract

This paper discussed harnessing gender education: for overcoming barriers to girls’ education in TVET in Nigeria. It makes an attempt to discuss how the male gender education especially in TVET concept in Nigeria was dominated over the female gender. It further discussed on how African tradition in the olden days have posed some barrier to girls education mostly in science and technology. Girls were underrepresented in major occupation related to technical, vocational and educational training (TVET) concept in Africa. Some definition of terms like sex, sex role, sex-link, gender, gender role and gender stereotyping on female gender as related to career by traditional and religious beliefs were discussed. Impediments to the provision of vocational education to the female in Nigeria were examined. Factors that hinder female performance on TVET concept were analyzed. Way forward and the recommendation were made following by conclusion of the work.

Keywords: Harnessing gender education, Overcoming barrier, Technical vocation

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WORK-LIFE-BALANCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE, IKOT AKPAN ABIA UYO, AKWA IBOM STATE.

WORK-LIFE-BALANCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE, IKOT AKPAN ABIA UYO, AKWA IBOM STATE.

Essien, Ekaette Emmanuel (MSc)
Department of Business Administration,
Faculty of Management Science,
AkwaIbom State University.

Prof. Don Baridam
Department of Business Administration,
Faculty of Management Science,
Akwa Ibom State University.

Christabel Brownson (PhD)
Department of Business Administration,
Faculty of Management Science,
Akwa Ibom State University.

ABSTRACT: This study was designed to examine the relationship between work-life-balance and organizational performance in the Nigeria Police Force, Ikot Akpan Abia, Akwa Ibom State. Two hypotheses were formulated in line with the research objectives. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and a sample size of three hundred and fifty-three (353) respondents was drawn from a population of three thousand and eight (3008) using Taro Yamane’s formula for sample size determination. The major instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire administered to the respondents and the data collected were analyzed using simple percentage and Ordinal Logistic Regression Analysis. The result of the findings revealed that, there is a significant positive relationship between variables of flexible work arrangement (𝛽2) 1.681, welfare policies (𝛽3) = 1.771, and organizational performance 0.620 in the Nigeria Police Force, Ikot Akpan Abia. Based on the findings of the analysis, all the proxies of Work-life Balance had significant positive relationship with Organizational performance. Consequently, it is recommended that Government should provide flexible work arrangement by introducing remote work options for certain roles within the police force, where officers can perform their duties from a remote location using technology. Through welfare policies, government should ensure that police officers receive competitive salaries and benefits that reflect the demands and risks associated with their roles. Government should implement comprehensive health and wellness initiatives that prioritize the physical and mental well-being of police officers as this will improve organizational performance.

Keywords: Work-life-balance, Flexible work arrangement, Work policies, Organizational Performance, The Nigeria Police Force.

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TOXIC LEADERSHIP AND TURNOVER INTENTION AMONG POLICE OFFICERS IN THE NIGERIAN POLICE FORCE

TOXIC LEADERSHIP AND TURNOVER INTENTION AMONG POLICE OFFICERS IN THE NIGERIAN POLICE FORCE

TIMINEPERE OGELE COURT
Department of Business Administration, University of Africa, Toru-Orua, Nigeria
Correspondence Email: timi2k2002@gmail.com; timinepere.court@uat.edu.ng

Abstract

The study draws on the leader-member exchange model and explores the relationship between toxic leadership and turnover intentions of police officers in the Nigerian Police Force. The study employed survey design and a sample of 280 police officers were selected through a stratified random sampling procedure. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire. The measurement scale was examined to determine the reliability and validity using various statistics. The method of data analysis was Partial Least Square Regression with structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The data were analyzed and the results demonstrated that there was a positive but insignificant relationship between abusive supervision and turnover intention of police officers, there was a significant positive relationship between narcissistic leadership and turnover intention of police officers; there was a positive  non-significant relationship self-promoting leadership and turnover intention of police officers ;there was a significant positive relationship between unpredictable leadership and turnover intention of police officers. The study concluded that police officers in the Nigerian Police had the intention to leave for other jobs due to toxic leadership style of superior officers. In tandem with findings, it was recommended that superior officers need to empathize while enforcing rules, procedures and programmes of the Nigerian Police.

Keywords:  Toxic Leadership, Abusive Supervision, Narcissism, Unpredictable leaders, Turnover intent, Nigerian Police.

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KNOWLEDGE SHARING AND ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs) IN NIGERIA

KNOWLEDGE SHARING AND ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs) IN NIGERIA

*Timinepere Ogele Court & Binaebi Kingsley Ogbolo
Department of Business Administration, University of Africa, Toru-Orua, Nigeria
*Correspondence Email: timi2k2002@gmail.com; timinepere.court@uat.edu.ng

Abstract

The study explored the nexus between knowledge sharing and entrepreneurial orientation of small and medium enterprises in Bayelsa State. The study applied a quantitative design and selected a sample of 312 managers of SMEs through simple random and stratified sampling methods. A structured questionnaire designed in a 5-point Likert form was utilized in collecting data through the distribution of the questionnaire to respondents. The content approach was adopted to ascertain the validity of the measuring instrument while Cronbach alpha was applied to determine the reliability of the measurement instrument. The data collected were analyzed with multivariate regression and found that knowledge sharing had a  positive but no significant effect on risk-taking;  knowledge sharing had a positive significant effect on innovativeness of small and medium enterprises; knowledge sharing had a  positive but no significant effect on proactiveness of small and medium enterprises; knowledge sharing had a positive significant effect on the competitiveness of small and medium enterprises; and knowledge sharing had a positive but no significant effect on autonomy of small and medium enterprises in Bayelsa state. The study concluded that knowledge sharing contributed to the entrepreneurial orientation of small and medium enterprises in Bayelsa State. In tandem with the findings, we recommended that managers and owner managers of SMEs should build knowledge management systems that facilitate exchange of intellectual capital to enhance entrepreneurial orientations to attain sustainable competitive edge. 

Keywords: Knowledge sharing, Risk-taking, Autonomy, Competitiveness, Proactiveness, Entrepreneurship and SMEs

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Religion, Insecurity and Social Cohesion in Nigeria

Religion, Insecurity and Social Cohesion in Nigeria

Michael, N. Nwoko
Department of Religious Studies and Philosophy, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria
Email: nwokomichael109@gmail.com

Abstract

In the context of national security, religion is believed to aid in propagating social cohesion and security through positive ideological orientation among its adherents.  But events of the recent times have placed some doubt to this fact due to the criminal activities of some religious aligned terrorist organisations in Africa and across the globe. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the role of religion in national security and social cohesion in Nigeria. Methodologically, this paper relies on secondary sources of data collected from textbooks, journal articles, newspapers and the Internet. Data analysis techniques adopted include content, thematic, historical and secondary data analyses. The paper is not statistically based. However, simple percentage will be used to illustrate quantitative data where necessary. One of the major findings of the paper shows that one singular challenge that has worked and is still working against every effort in Africa for religious inclusiveness, national security and social cohesion is corruption. This menace, the paper further observed has permeated into our political system and religious organisations. It is concluded here that religion which should have been a unifying factor for national security and social cohesion has rather shown negative inclination, especially after the ugly incident of 9-11 in the U.S and other criminal activities based on religious fundamentalism and extremism in other parts of the world, Nigeria inclusive in recent times.

Keywords: Religion, Security and Insecurity, Social Cohesion, Religious Fundamentalism, Religious Extremism, Corruption.

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Workplace Diversity Management and Organisational Performance

WORKPLACE DIVERSITY MANAGEMENT AND ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE

Okilo Aduba

Principal Lecturer, School of Commerce and Management, Bayelsa State Polytechnic

Aleibiri, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Fredojonesaduba@gmail.com

Kakatei Juanita Perelayefa

Lecturer II, School of Commerce and Management, Bayelsa State Polytechnic Aleibiri, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Tubonimi Ann Okuboere

Lecturer I, School of Commerce and Management, Bayelsa State Polytechnic Aleibiri,

Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Bariweni Timipre

Lecturer II, School of Commerce and Management, Bayelsa State Polytechnic Aleibiri, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

                                                        ABSTRACT

Environmental volatility, technological innovations and globalisation are causing serious disruption to organisations. If organisations must continue to survive in this ever changing business environment and achieve corporate goals and objectives, they need to develop businesses and cooperation across national boundaries. Managing the growing trend of multi-ethnic diverse workforce is a key factor in attaining overall corporate success. Organisations that effectively and efficiently manage diversity will have a competitive advantage in the market place because they can create higher morale and better relationship in the workplace. Business organisations must therefore value, appreciate and accommodate the multicultural workforce of their employees including members of varying ethnic, racial, religious and gender backgrounds. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to identify the relationship between workplace diversity management and organisational performance. The study is a review of extant literature on the relationship between workplace diversity management and organisational performance. The result of the study shows that workplace diversity is strongly related to organisational performance. Therefore, workplace diversity is an important and inevitable factor in organisations due to the rapid economic growth and advancement, which requires that firms become more diversified, particularly in multiracial and multi-ethnic countries. The study recommends that business organisations should continue to adopt workplace diversity as a veritable tool for enhancing performance. Organisations should embrace workplace diversity to achieve market performance, innovative performance, and stakeholder performance.

Keywords: Workplace Diversity, Organisational Performance, Market Performance, Innovative Performance, Stakeholder Performance.

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Biocontrol Potential of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolated From Soil Samples Against Mosquito Larvae

Category : Uncategorized

BIOCONTROL POTENTIAL OF Bacillus thuringiensis ISOLATED FROM SOIL SAMPLES AGAINST MOSQUITO LARVAE.

1Najibullah B. A., 1Abba H. A. and *1Gashua I. B.

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu.

*Corresponding Email: bgashua@gmail.com

(+234)8164313012

ABSTRACT

Mosquitoes as vectors have been transmitting several etiological agents of important human diseases, including malaria, causing millions of deaths every year. Overcoming insecticide resistance becomes a lingering challenge for recording a successful Mosquito control. In this research work, Larvicidal potential (LP) of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from different soil samples were tested as a control strategy of Mosquitoes and monitoring of larvae susceptibility. Mosquito larvae were assessed by isolation from different soil habitats in Yobe State. Confirmation of the isolated organisms to be Bacillus thuringiensis was based on biochemical characterization and microscopic observation. Two out of the five isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis obtained from the soil samples labeled P1 and Ga2 were used for carrying the study. At the intervals of 4, 12 and 24 hours, the Larvicidal activity (LA) on the mosquito larvae (which were measured by mortality rate and change in morphology of the larvae) were observed and recorded at 10-1, 10-2, 10-3, 10-4, and 10-5 dilution factors. The isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis showed a slight level of variation in their LA. Both isolates P1 and Ga2 caused 100% mortality of the larvae at the highest concentration of 10-1 at 4 hours while 100% mortality was recorded in other dilution factors at 12 hours. From this study, it is concluded that Bacillus thuringiensis is a very potent biolarvicide that brings about mortality of mosquito larvae at a short duration of time.

Key words: Mosquitoes, Bacillus thuringiensis, Malaria, Mortality, Biolarvicide.

INTRODUCTION

Worldwide, mosquito vectors are transmitting several etiological agents of important human diseases, including malaria, causing millions of deaths every year (El-Kersh et al., 2016). Mosquito borne diseases such as Malaria, Filariasis, Yellow fever and Dengue cause extensive morbidity and mortality and are a major economic burden within disease-endemic countries (Sachs and Malaney, 2002; Boutayeb, 2006). Every year, about 300 million people are estimated to be affected by Malaria, a major killer disease, which threatens 2,400 million (about 40%) of the world’s population (Sharma, 1999; Snow et al., 2005). About 20 million people are infected every year by dengue viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes with about 24,000deaths. The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases is increasing due to uncontrolled urbanization, creating mosquito-genic conditions for the vector mosquito populations. Therefore, mosquito control forms an essential component for the control of mosquito borne diseases.

However, of all the microbial agents, Bacillus thuringiensis has been successfully used as a bio-control agent. This bacterium is widely distributed in the environment and can be isolated from soil, insects, agricultural environments and leaves of certain deciduous and coniferous trees (Jara et al., 2006). B. thuringiensis is a spore-forming, gram-positive bacterium which could be distinguished by production of one or more proteinaceous parasporal crystals (δ-endotoxin) during sporulation (Lacey et al., 2001; Kumar, 2002). In certain strains, the delta-endotoxin proteins are toxic to members of specific insect genera and this has led to commercial development and use of some strains as microbial insecticides. Morphological and biochemical techniques have been used to differentiate newly isolated B. thuringiensis strains obtained from a variety of sources (Schnepf et al., 2005).

Due to their high specificity and their safety to most non-target organisms and to the environment in general, Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins are preferred and widely used as an alternative to chemical pesticides in pest management strategies against insect pests of agricultural crops (Roh et al., 2007; van Frankenhuyzen, 2009).

In addition, Bt. strains produce a wide variety of insecticidal proteins active against larvae of very diverse insect orders as well as, in some cases, against species from other phyla. This has led Bt-based products to become the best-selling biological insecticides to date (Roh et al., 2007). Since the genes encoding insecticidal proteins have been successfully used in novel insecticidal formulations and in the construction of transgenic crops (Sanchis, 2011).

Malaria vector control relies mostly on the use of an effective insecticide, which is commonly used through indoor residual spraying (IRS) or community-based deployment of insecticide impregnated/treated bed nets (ITN).

Chemical insecticides provide many benefits to food production and human health and have proven very effective at increasing agriculture and forestry productivities. However, they also pose some hazards as contamination of water and food sources, poisoning of non-target fauna and flora, concentration in the food chain and selection of insect pest populations resistant to the chemical insecticides (Wojciech and Korsten 2002). However, uncontrolled use of chemical insecticides has resulted in irreparable damage to environment (El-Kersh et al., 2012).

Radhika et al. (2011) reported that repetitive use of man-made insecticides for mosquito control disrupts natural ecosystems leading to reemergence of, and increase in mosquito populations. In their studies, Das et al. (2007) and Zhang et al. (2011) also pointed out that the continuous use of chemical-based insecticides has resulted in the development of resistance, detrimental effects on non-target organisms and human health problems. Consequently, they suggested the need for alternative control measures which leaves biological control as a viable alternative to chemical control. Microbial based insecticides are especially valuable because their toxicity to non-target animals and humans is extremely low and a crucial part of integrated pest management (Aramideh et al., 2010; El-kersh et al., 2012). Compared to other commonly used insecticides, they are safe for both the pesticide user and consumers of treated crops.

Interestingly, Bacillus thuringiensis is an important insect pathogen which is highly toxic to mosquito larvae and related dipterans (Poopathi and Abidha, 2010; Zulfaidah, et al., 2013). Bacillus thuringiensis is selectively active on pests and less likely to cause resistance hence it is considered beneficial to humans, animals and plants and also as a suitable replacement to chemical pesticides in many countries.

Thus, it is obvious that Bacillus thuringiensis is widespread in nature. However, the normal habitat of the organism is soil. The organism grows naturally as a saprophyte, feeding on dead organic matter. Therefore, the spores of Bacillus thuringiensis persist in soil and its vegetative growth occurs when there is nutrient available. Moreover Bacillus thuringiensis has recently been isolated from marine environments (Maeda et al., 2000).

The microbial insecticides most widely used in the world are preparation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Its insecticidal activity is due to the protein parasporal inclusions that are produced during sporulation. Insecticides based on the proteinaceous ᵹ-endotoxin of Bt. constitute part of a more ecologically rational pest control strategy. Bacillus thuringiensis sub sp. Isrealensis (Bt.) or serotype H-14, exhibit acute toxicity towards dipteran insects such as larval mosquitoes and black flies and is currently used in mosquito control programs worldwide (Mario and Montserrat, 2012).

Bacillus theringiensis is effective against the early stages of mosquito larvae and has not been reported to affect mosquito eggs, mature larvae, pupae or adults. Mosquito larvae must eat the Bt. formulated product containing dormant spores. Crystals which are known as insecticidal crystals proteins (ICPs) or delta – endotoxin produced during Bacillus thuringiensis sporulation. The mosquito larvae stop feeding and die when these proteins are converted into toxins that work by damaging the gut wall of mosquitoes (Lacey and Merrit, 2003).

The main aim of this research work is to isolate Bacillus thuringiensis from soil in different locations of Yobe state, and to test its potential as a Biolarvicide. From the literature search, this work can be considered as the first its kind in Yobe state, Nigeria.  

METHODOLOGY

Study Location

This study was carried out in Yobe State, Nigeria between April and September 2022 (Rainy season).

Soil samples were collected from four locations: Potiskum, Gujba, Gashua and Fika local government areas of Yobe State.

Collection of Soil Samples

The soil samples were taken two to five (5– 10cm) below the surface, after scrapping of the surface material with sterile spatula. Collected samples were placed in a sterile polyethene bag, transported to the laboratory and stored at 4°C until processed for Bacillus thuringiensis isolation. Ten soil samples each were collected from four locations in Yobe State. Two samples each from Potiskum, Gujba, Gashua and Fika local government areas of Yobe State respectively.

Culturing and Isolation of B. thuringiensis from Soil Samples

Culturing and isolation of B. thuringiensis were carried out following the procedure described by Elkersh et al., (2014) with slight modification, in which1g of fine grinded soil, was added to 2.0 ml of sterile distilled water and suspended vigorously using a Vortex Mixer, of these specimens, 2 ml aliquots were mixed with 2 ml absolute ethanol to obtain 50% ethanol concentration, vortexed for 1 min and then incubated at 30°C for 45 min with regular shaking. At the end of this time, 0.5 ml of each soil suspension was drawn into test-tube and pasteurized in a water bath at 80oC for 10 minutes to kill vegetative cells and non-spore forming bacteria. After cooling at room temperature, the mixture was then serially diluted with sterile distilled water of 4.5 ml in five folds. A volume of 0.1 ml of each dilution was streaked on nutrient agar medium. Plates were incubated at 37oC for 24hours.

Purification and Preservation of Typical B. thuringiensis Isolate

The morphological appearance of the B. thuringiensis colonies over the plate were creamy-white, rough and spread out. These colonies were picked and streaked again on nutrient agar and incubated for 48 hours at 37oC to obtain axenic culture. Isolated organisms that were suspected to be B. thuringiensis were then kept in nutrient broth medium at 4oC for further tests.

Identification of isolates

The isolates were identified using morphological characterization and conventional biochemical procedures according to Claus and Berkeley (1986) and Barrow and Feltham (1993). Gram staining and spore staining procedures were performed. Biochemical tests conducted include catalase, indole, coagulase, and amylase activity.

Detection of Endospore, Crystal Proteins and Morphology

Bacillus species do not stain, and they may be seen as unstained bodies within bacterial cells stained with methylene blue. Smears of Bacillus isolates were prepared and they were fixed by heat. The bacterial smears were then flooded with methylene blue. Staining lasted for 5 minutes.

Finally, de-staining was performed by washing under slow running tap water. The stained bacterial colonies were observed under oil immersion objective for endospore position, crystal production and morphology. The isolates having visible parasporal crystals next to the spore in the sporangium cells were identified as Bt. Isolates having ellipsoidal and sub terminal spores in un-swollen bacterial cells. The colonies showing morphology and crystal shape were scraped off from the plates and transferred into sterile vials containing 1 ml of nutrient broth. After vortex mixing, they were stored at 4oC as stock.

Breeding of Mosquito Larvae

A procedure described by Thomas et al., (2014) was followed to breed the mosquito larvae, water containers were left to stand in an open space at ambient temperature of about 30oC for one week to facilitate laying of eggs by the mosquito. The water containers were monitored daily to observe the emergence of the larvae. The larvae of the female anopheles mosquitoes were harvested using sieve and placed in a moistened cotton-wool to preserve them before exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis.

Bioassay and Activity of B. thuringiensis against Mosquito Larvae

From the laboratory screening carried out, two Bacillus thuringiensis isolates having different crystal shapes were selected and tested against larvae of mosquito. A similar procedure used by Adeyemo et al., (2018) was followed with slight modification. Were five mosquito larvae were introduced into each test tube with labeled dilution factor 10-1, 10-2, 10-3, 10-4 and 10-5 respectively of the Bacillus thuringiensis suspension. The Bacillus thuringiensis from broth slants were diluted with sterile distilled water by diluting 1ml of the suspension in 9 ml of sterile distilled water to obtain the various dilutions. The test tubes were kept at 30oC; where mortality rate was checked at 4, 12 and 24 hours for each dilution factor and larval mortality was recorded. A control test was also carried out using distilled water and a pond water.

RESULT

From the soil samples collected around Yobe state, B. thuringiensis was isolated from five of the eight samples as shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Habitats and Locations of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates

S/No.   Habitat of Isolate                   Location                                 Isolate code

1          Clay soil                                  Potiskum                                 P1

2          Loamy soil                              Fika                                              F1

3          Loamy soil                              Potiskum                                      P2

4          Loamy soil                              Gashu’a                                       Ga1

5          Sandy soil                                Gashu’a                                       Ga2

Table 2: Morphological Characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates

Characteristic      P1 F1 P2 Isolate Code. Ga1   Ga2
Gram staining + + + + +
Formation of  spore + + + + +
  Presence of crystal + +
Shape of spore O O O O O

Key:  + Present/Positive and O Ovoid

            Table 3: Biochemical Reactions of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates

Biochemical                                                    Isolate code

Test                                                     P1 F1P2  Ga1  Ga2

Catalase test                                        +          +          +           +          +

Indole test                                           –           –           –           –           –          

Coagulase                                            +          +          +          +          +         

Amylase activity                                 +          +          +            +         +       

Table 4: Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates P1 and Ga2 against Mosquito Larvae at the intervals of 4 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours.

  4 hours 12 hours 24 hours
  P1 Ga2 P1 Ga2 P1 Ga2
Dilution Factor No.of live larvae No.of dead larvae No.of live larvae No.of dead larvae No.of live larvae No.of dead larvae No.of live larvae No.of dead larvae No.of live larvae No.of dead larvae No.of live larvae No.of dead larvae
10-1 2 3 1 5 1 4 0 5 0 5 0 5
10-2 1 4 2 3 1 5 1 5 0 5 0 5
10-3 3 1 3 1 1 5 0 5 0 5 0 5
10-4 3 0 4 1 0 5 1 5 0 5 0 5
10-5 5 0 3 0 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5

Statistical Analysis

Data for mortality rate of the mosquito larvae were generated by the use of the two B. thuringiensis specie with two distinct morphological characteristics and quantitative measurement determined by counting. Duncan multiple range tests were employed to analyze the similarities and differences in the mean values of the quantitative characters.

DISCUSSION

This research was carried out to find a collection of native B. thuringiensis isolates that can potentially be used for developing bio-control tools to help fight mosquito-borne diseases. Under the assumption that sampling from different places might uncover novel genetic diversity and toxic potentials, B. thuringiensis isolates were obtained from a variety of soil samples collected in different locations around Yobe State as place like Gashu’a has extensive irrigation systems which creates an abundance of suitable mosquito breeding sites. Adeyemo et al., (2018) isolated six Bacillus thuringiensis from eight soil samples, this shows that not in all the samples collected produce the isolates as similar to the isolates obtained in this research.

CONCLUSION

Following series of laboratory analysis, the results obtained in this study clearly shows efficient the Bacillus thuringiensis is in the control of mosquito larvae. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis as a bio-control agent against mosquito larva is preferred as it is environmentally friendly and does not deplete the ozone layer unlike the regular pesticides used in killing mosquitoes in most communities.

It is however very significant to search for more microbial toxins to control insects’ orders which have the ability to develop resistance against selected insecticides. Screening of soil samples from different sources and habitats may be useful to obtain Bacillus thuringiensis strain with broader host ranges and novel crystal proteins.

Funding/Sponsorship

This project was sponsored/funded by the Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETFUND), in form of Institutional Based Research (IBR).

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Management of School Security for Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Rivers State

Category : Uncategorized

MANAGEMENT OF SCHOOL SECURITY FOR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN RIVERS STATE

BY

Onyekwere, Nwokeukwu

Department of Educational management,

Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt

08037445717 E-Mail: mandivworld@yahoo.com

&

Dr. (Mrs). Patricia. C. Ukaigwe

Department of Educational management,

Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt

08033381042, E-Mail: ukaigwewep17@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

This study investigated management of school security for academic achievement of secondary school students. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The research design was descriptive survey. The population consisted of 828 principals in public secondary schools in Rivers State. A sample of 394 principals was chosen using Taro yamen sampling formula and later stratified using stratified random sampling technique based on the three senatorial zones. It utilized a structured questionnaire based on modified four point likert type scale of Strongly agree, Agree, Disagree and Strongly disagree. This was validated and had a reliability of 0.824. Mean and rank order scores were used to analyze the research questions, while z-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of this work reveals that ways implementation of school security policies enhance the academic achievement of secondary school students are, it  promotes security consciousness amongst staff and students, maintaining minimum standard in security management, and the strategies for managing insecurity includes; security facilities should be efficiently utilized, a secure conducive atmosphere should be provided in schools, adequate plans should be made in anticipation of a risk, involving staff and students in security management, developing school security programmes, engaging staff in emergency safety drills, and providing adequate security facilities. The hypotheses tested revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of principals serving in urban areas and principals serving in rural areas on the ways implementation of security policies enhance academic achievement, and there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of principals serving in urban areas and principals serving in rural areas on the strategies for managing insecurity in secondary schools in Rivers a State. Based on the findings, the researcher recommends that regular in-service trainings on security management should be arranged for teachers by the ministry of education, and that security gadgets should be installed in all schools.

Keywords: Management, Security, Academic achievement

Introduction

Security threats in Nigeria system has received more attention compared to any other issue plaguing the Nigerian system in recent times. Unfortunately, the issue of security has extended from the political arena to the educational sector as well as other sectors of the economy. This can readily be seen in the number of abduction of students, kidnap of students and teachers, attacks by unknown gun men, the menace of herdsmen, banditry, etc. Aside from these, the school system faces many more security threats in the form of dilapidated infrastructure, natural disaster like flooding, cultism and acts from bullies. This clearly shows why it is imperative that more attention be given to management of security in secondary schools.

Management though could be viewed as a process by which an organized group directs attention towards the achievement of set organizational goals. The National Policy on Education (2014) stipulated the goals of secondary education to include the two broad goals namely; preparing individuals for useful living in the society and preparing them for higher education. These two goals on the other hand cannot be achievement in an insecure environment. A school environment that is marred by insecurity cannot realistically achieve these set goals of secondary education. It is therefore necessary that educational managers endeavour to put materials together towards ensuring a secure work environment. Management is achievement oriented and utilization of resources constitutes its primary task, Ogbonna (2018). Thus, managers need to continuously manipulate the available resources at their disposal to ensure security of the school system. 

Security could be considered to be state of freedom from all sorts of harm and injury. It implies that the human resources in the workplace feel a measure of convenience while in the work environment. It is moreover dependent on the top management to create this enabling environment for the human resources. In view of this, ThankGod (2018) opined that the failure and poor productivity an organization experiences shows how ineffective and inefficient the management has been. In order to achieve the goals of secondary education, school managers are expected to adopt adequate measures and steps that would in the long run promote effective teaching and enhance academic performance of students.

The Nigerian system has witnessed a huge amount of changes in the past decades. A quick analysis of the past five decades, one can readily note that insecurity was not a major issue in the country then. Sadly, the past 13 years have witnessed unprecedented rise in insecurity plaguing the entire system and the education sector in particular. We have seen cases of abduction of hundreds of students, killings of innocent students, and attacks of herdsmen in schools, etc.

Principals as managers must therefore ensure that they are aware of security situations in their school, have a procedure to follow up on the security threats, and must enlighten students, staff and visitors of what steps to take during an emergency.

Statement of the Problem

Despite the beautiful efforts of the government in ensuring that adequate security is guaranteed in secondary schools through activities such as ban on corporal punishment, establishment of counseling units, laws enacted by authorities etc, security threats have remained a major problem plaguing our educational sector. The security threats witnessed in secondary schools are no longer accidental or coincidental, but have advanced to well planned and premeditated actions geared not just at causing bodily harm, but death to supposed victims. This could be seen from the number of kidnaps, and abduction of innocent school students and teachers, attacks on schools by unknown gun men, herdsmen menace, explosion of explosives in the school environment, etc. It is thus obvious that insecurity is in an alarming state in Nigeria which unfortunately is directly affecting the educational industry. It is the challenges posed by security threats on schools that this study is bordered about.

Aim and Objectives of the study

The aim of this study is to investigate management of school security for academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State. Specifically, the objectives include to;

  1. determine how school security policies are being implemented to ensure academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State.
  2. identify the strategies of managing insecurity in schools for academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State.

Research Questions

In the light of these objectives, the following research questions were raised

  1. In what ways does implementation of school security policies enhance academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State?
  2. What are the strategies of managing insecurity in schools for academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State?

Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance;

Ho1: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals in urban areas and principals in rural areas on ways implementation of security policies enhance academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State.

Ho2: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals in urban areas and principals in rural areas on the strategies of managing insecurity for academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State.

Methodology

The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study and the population comprise of 828 principals serving in rural and urban secondary schools in Rivers State. The sample size of 394 principals was drawn using taro yamen sampling technique and later stratified based on the three senatorial zones in Rivers State. The researchers used a structured questionnaire titled management of school security for academic achievement of secondary school students (MSSAASSS) to elicit data from respondents. The instrument was validated by experts in the field of security. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) was used to establish the reliability index of 0.824. Mean and rank order was used to answer the research questions, while Z-test statistics was used to test the null hypotheses to ascertain significant difference at 0.05 level of significance

Results

Answers to Research Questions

Research question one:  In what ways does implementation of school security policies enhance academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State?

Table 1: School Security Policy Implementation for Achievement of Secondary Education Goals

S/N   Urban  (n= 230) Rural  (n= 162)      
  School security policy implementation for achievement of  education goals X 1 SD1 X 2 SD2 Σ X Rank Order Decision
1 Sets direct clear security goals and objectives 3.59 0.63 3.58 0.63 3.58 2nd Agreed
2 Brings about openness in security management 2.51 1.17 2.42 1.18 2.47 8th Disagreed
3 Ensures management’s commitment to continuously improve safety 2.71 1.02 2.63 1.04 2.68 6th Agreed
4 Ensures management and employee accountability 2.47 0.97 2.39 0.92 2.43 9th Disagreed
5 Brings about continuous improvement in security level 2.57 1.04 2.58 1.04 2.58 7th Agreed
6 Building upon existing security procedures 3.68 0.65 3.75 0.57 3.72 1st Agreed
7 Maintains minimum standard in security management 2.93 0.94 2.87 0.97 2.90 4th Agreed
8 Leads to continuity of organizational processes 2.86 1.01 2.81 1.03 2.83 5th Agreed
9 Promotions security consciousness amongst staff and students 3.00 1.02 3.01 1.00 3.00 3rd Agreed
  Total 2.92 0.93 2.89 0.93 2.91   Agreed

When the responses of urban and rural principals were subjected to statistical analysis on ways implementation of school security policies enhance academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State, respondents agreed that sets direct clear security goals and objectives (3.58), ensures management commitment to continuously improve security (2.68), brings about continuous improvement in security level (2.58), building upon existing security procedures (3.72), and maintains minimum standard of security management (2.90). It was also agreed that continuity of organizational processes (2.83) and promotion of security consciousness amongst staff and students (3.00) was ways through which implementation of security policies enhance achievement of secondary school goals in Rivers State.

Research question two:  What are the strategies of managing insecurity in schools for academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State?

Table 2: Strategies of Managing Insecurity in Secondary Schools

S/N Strategies of managing insecurity for the achievement of secondary education goals Urban (n=230) Rural (n =162)      
    X 1 SD1 X 2 SD2 Σ X Rank Order Decision
10 Setting clear security goals 2.67 1.06 2.65 1.04 2.66 5th Agreed
11 Ensuring regular security programs 2.95 1.08 2.93 1.04 2.94 1st Agreed
12 Regular security inspection 2.69 0.99 2.71 0.99 2.70 4th Agreed
13 Provision of adequate security facilities 2.69 0.99 2.72 0.97 2.70 4th Agreed
14 Regular security trainings for staff 2.87 1.00 2.98 0.93 2.92 2nd Agreed
15 Involving students in security matters 2.55 0.98 2.56 0.94 2.55 6th Agreed
16 Provision of incentives for security conscious staff 2.80 1.05 2.81 1.07 2.81 3rd Agreed
  Grand Mean 2.74 1.03 2.75 0.98 2.75   Agreed

When the opinion of urban and rural principal were requested on the strategies of managing insecurity for academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State, it was agreed setting clear security goals (2.66), ensuring regular security programs (2.94), regular security inspection (2.70), provision of adequate security facilities (2.70), regular security trainings for staff (2.92), involving students in security matters (2.55), and provision of incentives for security conscious staff (2.81) were all strategies of managing insecurity for the achievement of secondary school goals. In addition, a grand mean of 2.75 was obtained which revealed that the strategies were accepted.

Test of hypotheses

Hypothesis one: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals in urban areas and principals in rural areas on ways implementation of security policies can enhance academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State, Nigeria.

Table 3. Z-test analysis of the difference between the mean scores of urban and rural principals on ways implementation of security policies enhance academic achievement

Location N Mean SD Df Z-Cal Z-Crit Decision
Urban 230 2.63 1.06   390   0.19   1.960   Accepted
Rural 162 2.66 1.04

As shown from table 3, when the mean values of respondents in urban schools (2.63), and those from rural schools (2.66) was subjected to independent sample Z-test, the result revealed that a Z-calculated value of 0.19 was obtained which was lesser than the Z-critical value of 1.960. This therefore indicates that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of principals in urban areas and principals in rural areas on ways implementation of security policies enhance academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State, Nigeria. The null hypothesis was therefore retained.

Hypothesis Two: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals in urban areas and principals in rural areas on the strategies of managing insecurity in schools for academic achievement of secondary school students in Rivers State, Nigeria.

Table 4. Z-test analysis of the difference between the mean scores of principals in urban areas and principals in rural areas on strategies of managing insecurity in schools for academic achievement

Location N Mean SD Df Z-Cal Z-Crit Decision
Urban 230 2.75 0.98   390   0.68   1.960   Accepted
Rural 162 2.74 1.03

As shown from table 4, when the mean values of respondents in urban schools (2.75), and those from rural schools (2.74) were subjected to independent sample Z-test, the result revealed that a Z-calculated value of 0.68 was obtained which was lesser than the Z-critical value of 1.960. This therefore indicates that there was no significant difference in the mean rating of principals in urban areas and principals in rural areas on the strategies for managing insecurity for achievement of secondary education goals in Rivers State.

Discussion of findings

As analyzed on table 1, the findings of research question one reveals that the ways implementation of school security policies enhance achievement of secondary school goals in Rivers State are, that it sets clear security goals and objectives, ensures management commitment to continuously improve safety, brings about continuous improvement in security level, building upon existing security procedures, maintains minimum standard of security management, leads to continuity of organizational processes, and promotion of security consciousness amongst staff and students.  This is in agreement with the study of Udenwa (2015) who carried out a study on assessment of challenges inhibiting safety management in secondary schools in Rivers state, which revealed that the unavailability of clear safety objectives, lack of training for teachers and lack of regular safety inspection were challenges inhibiting safety management in secondary schools. It equally agrees with Chukwudi (2018), who conducted a study on safety management for quality work environment of public primary schools in Abia State, which revealed that safety risk management programs can enhance the quality of the work environment in public primary schools. 

The implication of these findings shows the need for school administrators to set clear school security policies and ensure that those policies are strictly adhered to. When security policies are made in school, it helps to curb security threats. The statistical analysis of hypothesis one however revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of urban and rural principals on ways implementation of security policies enhance achievement of secondary school goals in Rivers State, Nigeria.

As analyzed on table 2, the findings of research question two reveal that the strategies of managing insecurity for the achievement of secondary school goals in Rivers State, Nigeria includes; setting clear security goals, ensuring regular security programs, regular security inspection, provision of adequate security facilities, regular security trainings for staff, involving students in security matters, and provision of incentives for security conscious staff.         This finding is in agreement with Ukaigwe and Mba (2016), who carried out a study on principal’s role on security in secondary schools in the 21st century in Emohua local government area of Rivers state, which revealed that existing ways of managing security in secondary schools include provision of adequate security equipment, training of newly employed security staff, and introducing government-community participation. It is also in agreement with Chukwudi (2018), who conducted a study on safety management for quality work environment of public primary schools in Abia State, which revealed that safety risk management programmes can enhance the quality of the work environment in public primary schools. It is also in line with Hassan, (2018), who carried out a study on safety practices in public secondary schools in Kwara state, which revealed that there was little or moderate level safety practices in most public schools in Kwara state, thus there is need for greater awareness to be created in safety management which in turn will help in managing safety problems. It is also in consonance with Mohammed, (2016), who carried out a study on management of educational facilities for safety purpose in Kaduna state, which revealed that maintenance of educational facilities, removal of damaged facilities and participation of stakeholders are so some ways managing safety issues in schools.

Summary of Findings

The findings revealed that ways implementation of school security policies enhance the academic achievement of secondary school students are; that it builds upon existing safety procedures, setting direct clear safety and health goals and objectives, it promoting safety consciousness amongst staff and students, maintaining minimum standard in safety and health management, establishing a means of meeting security goals, it builds upon existing safety procedures, and it leads to continuity of organizational processes. The strategies for managing insecurity includes; security facilities should be efficiently utilized, a secure conducive atmosphere should be provided in schools, adequate plans should be made in anticipation of a risk, involving staff and students in security management, developing school security programmes, engaging staff in emergency safety drills, providing adequate security facilities. There was no significant difference in the mean ratings of principals serving in urban areas and principals serving in rural areas on how security policies are being implemented for goal achievement in Rivers state. There was no significant difference in the mean ratings of principals serving in urban areas and principals serving in rural areas on the strategies for managing school security in Rivers State

Conclusion

In line with the findings of this study, it is concluded that implementation of school security policies leads to setting of direct clear security goals and objectives, promotes security consciousness amongst staff and students, maintains minimum standard in security management, and leads to continuity of organizational processes. On the other hand, strategies for providing and  efficiently utilizing security facilities, providing a secure conducive atmosphere, making plans in anticipation of a risk, involving staff and students in security management, and engaging staff in emergency security drills are all ways of managing security in secondary schools.

Recommendations

  1. The ministry of education should carefully consider the security of the school when mapping out a school site.
  2. Government should make and implement good security polices at all levels of education.
  3. The ministry of education should incorporate school security training into our education curriculum just the way it is in the engineering fields.
  4. Regular in-service trainings on security management should be arranged for teachers by the ministry of education.
  5. Security gadgets should be installed in all schools e.g turnstile

References

Chukwudi, J. (2018). Safety management for quality work environment of public primary schools in Abia State. An unpublished thesis of Abia State University, Uturu.

Hassan. M. (2018) Safety practices in public secondary schools in Kwara state. International  Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Sciences. 5(6) 22-35.

Mohammed, H. (2016). Management of educational facilities for safety purpose in Kaduna state. International journal of science and technology, 5(9), 256-271.

National policy on Education (2016)

Ogbonna, S. (2018). Effect of insecurity of school environment on the academic performance of secondary school students. Academic Journal of Science, 5(1) 138-151

ThankGod, B. (2018). Management of school facilities for academic achievement in Government secondary schools in Abia State. International Journal of Science Education, 5(6) 23-38.

Udenwa, A. (2015). Assessment of challenges inhibiting safety management in secondary schools in Rivers state. An unpublished thesis of University of Port Harcourt.

Ukaigwe, P.C. & Mba, C.O. (2016). Principal’s role on security in secondary schools in the 21st    century in Emohua. African Journal of Educational Research and Development, 8(2), 418-425.

 

 

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2018 : 3.466

2015 : 0.676

Current impact factor evaluation is in progress.

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Research Articles written in English Language are invited from interested researchers in the academic community and other establishments for publication. Authors who wish to submit manuscripts should ensure that the manuscripts have not been submitted elsewhere neither is it under consideration in another journal. The articles should be the original work of the authors. High quality theoretical and empirical original research papers, case studies, review papers, literature reviews, book reviews, conceptual framework, analytical and simulation models, technical note from researchers, academicians, professional, practitioners and students from all over the world are welcomed.